201.Youarrivehomefromworkoneevening,onlytodiscoveryourbiosphereisdead.Whatawaytostarttheweek!Onlookingbackthroughtherecords,thereasonisnothardtodiscover.Aclassicgreenhouse-effectproblem.Nextti
me,winddownthefossilfuelsalittlemoresoyourglobedoesn'tcookitselftodeathwhileyou'reout.Fortunatelythebiosphereinquestionisonlyagame,orsomethinglikeagame.Youhavethisprogramrunningonyourhomecompu
tercalledSimEarth,whichletsyoumodelallkindsofbiosphereconditionsoveranumberofdifferenttimeframes:geological,biologicalandsociological.Theoneyouthinkyou'regettingalittleobsessedwithisamodelofpl
anetEarthfrom1990onwards.Sothisweekyoudecidethatyouwillsetupthismodeleverymorning,selectingtypesandquantitiesofenergyuseandexpenditure.Youwillcomehomeeveryeveningandseeifyourworldisstillrunnin
g.Sometimesitis,sometimesitisn't.202.There'ssomethingalittleeerieabouthavingafunctioningbiosphereinyourhome;somethingrathermoredisturbingaboutfindingthethinghasgonebellyupwhileyouwereoutatwork
.SimEarthletsyouchoosefromanumberofenergysources,includingbiomass,hydro-electric,solar,nuclearorfossilfuelled.Italsoletsyouprogramarangeofenergyuses,includingscience,agriculture,medicine,andth
earts.Eachofthesehasdifferenteffects.Ifyouexpendenergyonagriculture,populationincreasesrathermorerapidly.Ifyoudevotemoreresourcestoscience,technologicalchangeaccelerates.Someoftheassumptionshe
reareofcoursecrude,butnotunreasonable.Naturally,ahomebiospherehastorunarelativelysimplealgorithmcomparedtotheheavydutymodel.203.Thecuriousthingaboutitishowfiddlingaroundwiththesecrudevariables
givesyouafeelfortheglobalimpactoffundamentalchoicesaboutwhateconomistscallresourceallocation.Forinstance,youstartituponemidweekmorningwithsettingswhichdevotealotofresourcestoagriculture.Thisse
emsareasonableapproachtocreatingaminimalistatopia.TheodorAdorno:"Thereistendernessonlyinthecoarsestdemand:thatno-oneshouldgohungryanymore.Everyotherseekstoapplytoaconditionthatoughttobedetermi
nedbyhumanneeds,amodeofconductadaptedtoproductionasanendinitself."Andyetitdoesn'tquiteworkout.Whenyoucomehomefromworkyoufindthepopulationshotthroughtheroof.Thatonewaspredictable.Whatyouhadn'tc
ountedon,though,wasthatincreasingagriculturepumpedoutmoregreenhousegasses.Thetemperaturewaseversoslowlyrising,threateningtotoasteverything,unevenlybutverycrisplybrown.Andallbecauseofthattroubl
ingphrase,'humanneeds'204.Likeanypatientconfrontedwithaterminaldiagnosis,youwantedasecondopinion.SoyousetSimEarthrunningathomebeforedrivingofftowork,whereyoustealalittletimetofireupyourbrowse
randgowebsurfing.Theurgentproblemistofindoutwhyincreasingtheamountoffoodbeinggrownhasthislethaleffect.Theprognosisisnotgood.Itseemsthatmethaneisoneofthegassesthatcausesglobalwarming.Abittoomuc
hmethaneintheairandheatgetstrappedintheatmosphere.Bydialingupmoreagriculture,youalsouppedtheamountofmethanegoingintotheatmosphere.Ricepaddies,forinstance,areoneofthesourcesofmethane.Itseemstha
tdeepinthemuckatthebottomofricepaddiesarelittlebacteriathatproducemethaneasabyproduct.Great!Thereyouwere,onlythismorningtryingtoseetoitthatallthepeopleonyourbiospherearegetenoughtoeat,andbythe
timeyoucomehomefordinneryou'recookingthebiosphere.205.Thisisallabittoomuch,butfortunatelythenextdayistheendoftheworkingweekandyouaregoingouttodinnerafterwardswithfriends.Youimaginethismighttak
eyourmindofSimEarth,butallthatfoodonthetablemakesyoulooseyourappetite.Thatbigsilverydishwithallthatriceinitsmellslikeover-cookedbiosphere.Thebeef,deliciousthoughittastes,onlymakesthingsworse.I
tseemsthatoneoftheothersourcesofmethaneintheworldis,ofallthings,cowfarts.Yes,cowfarts.Itneveroccurredtoyouthattherewastheslightestglobalsignificanceinthefactthatcowsareabitgassy.Theproblemis,t
heyfart(andbelch)methane.Well,notthecowsexactly,butthebacteriaintheirstomachsthatbreakdownallthatgrass.Thosebacteria,liketheirteeminglittleprokaryoterelativesinthericepaddies,alsomakemethane.2
06.Theweekendcomes,sonowyoucanreallyspendsometimeonthisbiospherebusiness.Whenyouprogrammedyourlittlebiospherewithlotsoffoodproductionsothatnobodywouldgohungry,youalsoselectedahigherrateofmetha
neoutput.Itjustgoestoshowhowyouhavetothinkaboutalloftheconsequencesofanythingyoudo.Thatnobodyshouldgohungryisaworthygoal,but,allthingsbeingequal,itmeansmorepeople,andmorepeoplemeansmorelandund
ercultivation,andthatmeansmoremethane,andthatisabitofaproblem.SothenexttimeyousetupSimEarthyoudothingsabitdifferently.Ratherthanconcentrateonexpandingfoodproductionintheshortterm,whynotputmore
resourcesintoscienceandtechnologyinstead?Thisisabitofagamble,youthinktoyourselfasyoudriveofftothemallinyourhightechhybridcar,thekindAlGorerecommends.Whatifsciencedidn'tcomeupwiththeanswersinti
me?Whatifburningupfossilfuelsatarateofknotsdidn'tkickprogressalongfastenough?Whatifpeoplegohungry?Whatthehellisprogressanyway?207.Bythetimeyoureturnhome,SimEarthhadrevertedtowhatitcalls,withac
ertaindrollery,'geologicaltime'.Thereisnothingleftalive,soyourplanetisjusttickingover,waitingquartzeonsforlifetomysteriouslysparkagain.Whathappened?Checkthecharts.Letssee:pollutionup,oxygenlev
elsdown,carbondioxideup,temperaturesskyhigh.Itseemsthetechno-gambledidn'tquiteworkout.Crankingupthewholeglobaleconomytothemax,pumpingoutandburningupeverysourceofenergyasfastaspossiblecertainly
didincreasethepaceoftechnologicalchange,butinthisscenario,itincreasedtherateofglobalclimatechangeevenfaster.208.Theproblemwasn'tthemethanethistime.Bykeepingpopulationandfoodproductiongrowingab
itmoreslowlyitseemsyoukeptyourlittlegreenearthfromspinningoutintothatfate.Theproblemthistimewasthecarbondioxide.Thereitisonthegraph-shootingupatadevilishlysharptack,takingtemperaturesupwithit.
Burningfossilfuels-oilandcoal-producescarbondioxide,amongotherthings,andwhenyouincreasetheamountofcarbondioxideintheatmosphere,youturnthetoasteronagain.Likemethane,ittrapstheheatfromsunlight.T
hereallysadpartisthatallthewayhomeinthecarfromyourtriptothemall,loadedupwithorganicvegetables,biodegradabletoiletpaperandthenewslim-linemodelPlaystation,youhadbeenreallyeagertoseeifyourlittleg
amblehadpaidoff.209.Youhadnotquiteabsorbedtheideathatdrivingispartoftheproblem.Marxshowedhoweachactofconcrete,specific,particularlaborismadeequivalent,bythewagerelation,toeveryother.Concretela
borisalsoabstractlabor.Ingamespace,everyconcrete,specificactionofanykindisalsoanabstractaction,theconsumingofagivenresourceforagivenresult.Andyetgamespacedoesnotencompassandaccountforeveryacti
on.Onlythoseinputsthattaketheformofanagonbetweencompetingforcesinthemarketcanbecalculated.Butbehindtheagonliesahostofcontraryterms,shadingoffintotheimperceptible,thatcomebacktotauntgamespacewi
ththeircumulativeeffect.WhatsetsSimEarthapartisthattheunintendedconsequencesofagon,alltheexcludedandcontraryoutputs,receivedatleastanapproximateaccounting.210.Youhadalwaysthoughtthatiftheecono
myintherealworldcrankedalongatmaximumefficiency,thentechnologywouldalsobobblealongataratesufficienttodealwiththelittleproblemsthatmightoccuralongtheway.KarlMarx:"Mankindthusinevitablysetsitsel
fonlysuchtasksasitisabletosolve,sincecloserexaminationwillalwaysshowthattheproblemitselfarisesonlywhenthematerialconditionsforitssolutionarealreadypresentoratleastinthecourseofformation."Well,
maybe.WhattheSimEarthallegorithmpointstoisthatlikemostpeople,youhadalwaystakenthisonfaith.Whathappensifthelittleproblemsaren'tjustaccidentalbyproductsalittleoilspillthere,atoxicwastedisastert
herewhatifthemilitaryentertainmentcomplexitselfwasmuckinguptheglobalconditionsofitsownsuccess?GamespaceisjustlikeyourPlaystation.Itappearstoitselfasarigorousgame,witheveryactionaccountedfor,a
ndyetitreliesonahugepowercordpokingoutthebackthatsucksinenergyfromanelsewhereforwhichitmakesnoallowance.Thatthegameisnotreallyruledofffromtheworld,thatitreliesonanexternalsourceofpower,didnotr
eallyoccurtoyouuntilyouplayedyournewPlaystationforhoursandhoursonendanditoverheated.Tantalum,liketherestofplanetearth,isonlygoodwithsomuchheat.ThereissomethingoutsideTheCave(tm)afterall.Gameov
er.211.Alright,somaybethirdtimelucky.Letseaseupontheagriculturaloutputandtheuseoffossilfuels.Here'sanidea:let'sgonuclear!Maybethisisthewaytohavethebestofbothworlds,sotospeak.Lotsofenergytokeep
industryandtechnologycooking,butwithoutturningonthebigheatofthegreenhousetoaster-oven.Runitovernightandtestyournucleargambit.Sundaymorningcomes.Well,thistimethereisgoodnewsandbadnews.Thegoodne
ws:yourbiospheredidn'tcookthistime.Youhadwellandtrulysolvedthegreenhouseproblempermanently.Thebadnews:Ratherthanoverheatit,youaccidentallyshoveditintothedeepfreeze.Itscalled'nuclearwinter'an
ditresultsfromlettingoffafewtoomanythermonucleardevices.Thedustcloudfromthatkeepsthesunlightoutaltogether.212.Byclickingonthenuclearoption,yougaveyourlittleSimEarthlingsnotonlyagreatsourceofpo
wer,butadangerousweapon.Itwasnotasifyouhadtakenawaythesourcesofpotentialconflict,however.Conditionswerenotexactlyripe,itseemsforglobalconsciousness.A.A.Bogdanov:"Thestrugglebetweenclasses,grou
ps,andindividualsprecludesboththeideaofthewholeandthehappinessandsufferingimpliedbythenotion."Theyjuststartedblastingawayateachother.Perhapstheydidn'tinventgametheory,andfigureoutthatdeterrenc
eonlyworksifnobodyshoots.Andperhapsthat'syourfault-youreducedinputsforscienceandculture.Theradioactivepatchesonthesurfaceofthisdigitalearthburnthroughafeweons-worthofthesubsequent'geological'p
hase.Youcanseelittlenukesigns,carvedonthebrownstumpofaformerlygreenplanet,likevandal-carvedgraffitiontreesthatannouncestonobodyinparticular:wewerehere.Howdidthishappen?Whilethenowquitevisibleh
andofagonwithingamespacemetesoutresourcesaccordingtoitslaw;aninvisiblefoot,composedofallthatshadesawayintomerecontraries,qualitieswithoutquantities,kicksittopieces.Youlooseagain.KimStanleyRobi
nson:"Itwasfrightening-asifhistorywereaseriesofhumanwaveassaultsonmisery,failingtimeaftertime."213.It'snotmuchofagame,SimEarth.Perhapsthat'swhyaftersevendaysofuncreation,youbecameboredwithit.T
henuninstalledit.ThenfinallygotaroundtosellingitonEbay.PerhapsIboughtyouroldcopy.Iplayeditforawhile,onanobsoletecomputer.Itcangetalittleobsessive.SimEarthgamerstellamazingstories:Aboutthetimet
helidblewoffthebiosphere,butuproseastrainofintelligentrobots.Orthetimeittickedoverformonths,populatedwithamillionsentientcetaceans,allusingnanotechnologytoruntheirwateryutopia.Butthere'ssometh
ingdisturbingaboutit.Perhapsthat'swhythereisnosequel,noupdates.Itisasextinctanexampleofgameevolutionasthepoorsim-critterswhopopulateitssun-blastedendgames.SimEarthisextinct,agamewithoutsequels
,buttwooffshootsfromthesameevolutionaryphylaofgamedesignlivedon.OneisTheSims.Perhapsitwasbetteradaptedtosurviveingamespace,becauseitdidnotgivethegameaway.ThedeathofaSimisnottheendoftheworld.An
otherdescendantlinetriestheothertack.InWillWright'smuchadmiredSpore,survivalisnotlimitedtoonebiosphere.OlafStapeldon:"Itmustnotbesupposedthatthenormalfateofintelligentracesinthegalaxyistotrium
ph."AtleastinSporethere'smorethanonehometotrash.214.Formsofgameevolveinaquasi-Darwinianmanner,notunlikeformsoforganism.Gamedesignersbreednewformsoutofexistingforms,andthemilitaryentertainmentc
omplexthrowstheresultingvariationsonawaitingmarket,wheretheycompetetosaveyoufromboredom.Veryfewformssucceed.It'salmostDarwinian:Thedesignerproposes;gamespacedisposes.FrancoMoretti:"InDarwin,in
otherwords,historyistheinterweavingoftwowhollyindependentpaths:randomvariationandnecessaryselection.Inourcase,[formal]innovations,whicharetheresultofchance;andasocialselection,whichbycontrasti
sthedaughterofnecessity."Throughasubtleinversionofthelogicofnaturalselection,gamespaceclaimstobethefullimplementationofadigitalDarwinism.Hereforoneandalltheruleissurvivalofthefittest.Onlywhata
ctuallyhappensisquitethereverse:thedemiseoftheunfit.Survivalhasnopositivevalue.Gamespaceisapurenihilism.Thebestonecanhopeforismerelybeingundefeated.Hencetheunsatisfyingqualityof'winning'inSimE
arth.Intheunlikelyeventthatthegamerattlesontowardthedeathofthesun,thisvictoryamountstonothing.ThisisperhapswhySimEarthdidnotsurvive.Thereissomethingratherundesirableinthisgameofcruelty.Butther
eisadifferencebetweennaturalselectionand'cultural'selection.An'unfit'gamelikeSimEarthfailsnotbecauseitbumpsupagainsttherealityprincipleofbarelife,butquitethereverse.Itfailsthefantasyprinciple.
215.Giventhatyoucan'treallywin,SimEarthishardlyagameatall.ThebestconclusionformostscenariosisthatyourSimEarthlingsleavetheplanetinafleetofspaceships.SimEarthlacksoneoftheusualcriteriaforagame-
whatwemightcallasatisfying'wincondition',whichterminatesitsalgorithm.Butthenperhapsthat'stheallegory.SimEarthmapsthelimittogamespace.Whatgamespaceusuallyexcludes-theresiduesthatpileupoutofsigh
toutofmind-arehereincluded,andtheyarethesourceoftheproblem.Thechoiceswithinthegame-betweenagricultureandscience,forexample,appearaschoicesbetweenpositiveterms.Theytakenoaccountoftheircontrarie
s,whichappearwithoutnames.SimEarth'sstrategyistoincludeeverytermwithinitsagon.Therearenocontraries,oralmostnone.Itpositsthewholeplanetasgamespace.Eventhepowersourceofthesunisincluded.Onlyablan
kinterstellaroftheangelsspaceremainsasitscontrary.216.Theinclusionofalmosteverythingwithinthegameleaveslittlebywayofatoposinwhichtoconquer,expand,colonize,transform,oreventoposeastheremotetime
orplaceasthealibiforutopiantexts.SureyoucouldterraformMars,buttheresultseemsaforegoneconclusion.Thereisnofrontieralongwhichastorylinemighttraffictheunknownintotherealmoftheknown.Acertainkindof
historyendshere.SaystheStalinist-SurrealistpoetPaulEluard:"Thereisanotherworld,anditisthisone."SimEarthclosesthebookonthatutopianrealm,andthestruggleforandagainstit.Gamespacehasconsumedtheworl
d,butthecatastropheoftheworld'sconsummationcomesbacktotauntit,undoingitfromwithin.E.M.Cioran:"Thereisnootherworld.Noreventhisone."Oncealltermsareincludedwithintheagonofgamespace,thewholeoflife
becomesagamethatcanbelost,forever.217.SimEarthisbygenrea'Godgame'.SomeGod!Againandagain,youfailyourcreation.SimEarthisnotsomuchaboutthedeathofGodasGod'ssuicide.Ittakesawaytheempoweringthoughto
fbeingresponsibleforHisdisposal.Suicideiseitherfastandviolent,inwhichGodthrowshimselfintotheflamesofglobalwarming.Orvery,veryslow;hooked,likeahelplessjunkie,tothesun.Asunwhichfinallyovercomesy
ourabilitytomaintain.MarkAmerika:"Oblivionistheonlycureforagony."ThedelusionofGodgamesisthatthegamerisincontrolwhenatthecontroller.Butitisthegamewhichplaysthegamer.Itisyou,thegamer,whoisanavat
ar,inthesenseofbeingtheincarnationofanabstractprinciple.Thegamerisalesserdeityincarnate,answerabletoahigherpower-thegameitself.218.Whengamespacechoosesyouasitsavatar,whichcharacterdoesitselect
foryoutoplay?PerhapsinSimEarththegameristheavataroftheAngelofHistory.WalterBenjamin:"Whereachainofeventsappearsbeforeus,heseesonlyonesinglecatastrophe,whichkeepspilingwreckageuponwreckageandhu
rlsitathisfeet.Theangelwouldliketostay,awakenthedead,andmakewholewhathasbeensmashed.Butastormisblowingfromparadiseandhasgotcaughtinhiswings;itissostrongthattheangelcannolongerclosethem."Orperh
apsyouareanavataroftheLucklessAngel,withratherdifferenthitpoints.HeinerMŸller:"Thepastsurgesbehindhim,pouringrubbleonwingsandshouldersthunderinglikeburieddrums,whileinfrontofhimthefuturecollec
ts,crusheshiseyes,explodinghiseyeballslikeastarwrenchingthewordintoaresoundinggag,stranglinghimwithitsbreath."Thissuitstheexperienceandthetimesratherbetter.Thedrollexperienceofbeingflungforw
ardintonothingnessbytheterminaltransformationofnature;anexperienceofhellseentoolate.SimEarthisanallegoryoftheendsofgamespace,whichdeclaresitsvictoryoverthegamer,andoveranyotherresidueofcontrar
iesoutsideitsformofforms.Itpopstheblueeyeofthegamer'sworld.219.PerhapsyouareanavataroftheEgyptiandemigodTheuth,whoaccordingtoPlatowastheinventorofnotonlyofwriting,butalsoofnumberandcalculation
,geometryandastronomy,gamesofchanceandgamesofskill.InastorySocratestellsinPhadrus,Theuthoffersthesetothesun-godThamus,andsays:"whatIhavediscoveredis[recipes]ofmemoryandwisdom."Thamusconsiderst
hemonebyone.InSocrates'telling,itiswritingaboutwhichThamushasthemostqualms.Fortheproblemsofmemory,recording,delineating,isthis'pharmakon'ofwritingaremedyorapoison?Writingsendstheword-logos-out
intotheworldestrangedfromtheauthorityofitsauthor,erasingthelineofitspaternity,makingofitanorphan.Inthissense,it'safather-killingpoison,anditwouldmakeofThamusthesun-godamarkedman.Butthesun-godo
nlyhastogivetheword.Behindwritingliesspeech,andbehindspeech,thepurelightofthegood.JacquesDerrida:"Thegood(father,sun,capital)isthusthehiddenilluminating,blindingsourceoflogos."220.PerhapswhatT
heuthhadtoofferThamuswasnotaremediesbutrecipes-algorithms.ManuelDeLanda:"Theserecipesincluderulesofthumbandshortcutsdiscoveredbytrialanderror,usefulhabitsofminddevelopedthroughexperience,andt
ricksofthetradepassedonfromonegenerationofproblem-solverstothenext.Someofthevaluableinsightsmaythenbecapturedinageneralpurpose,'infallible'problemsolvingrecipe(knownasan'algorithm')."Andwhati
fTheuthhadkilledThamus,andtakenHisplace?Whatifitwerenotwriting,butallTheuth'salgorithmswhichwereHispower?Thealgorithmsofwriting,calculation,navigationandthegame,atfirstseparately,andthencoming
togethercreateatopology,aworldnolongerlogocentric,butludocentric.TheuthsetshimselfupasKingDigital.BehindappearancesliesanewHelios,theartificialsun-kingofthealgorithm,abletoname,locate,value,ca
lculateandsetinplayanythingandeverythingbutthesunitself.IfinPlatohistorymovesbetweenmythosandlogos,itcomesfinallytorestbetweenlogosandludus,betweenwritingandthegame,inaworldwheretheoriginarypo
werofvoiceisneitherherenorthere.ThesunthatpowersSimEarth,thelightwhichilluminatesTheCaveisnotthesun-GodThamus,butthealgorithmsofTheuth.Butbythislight,SimEarthtellstheinconvenienttruthaboutgame
space-thatitcanknowitslimit,itsend,butnotwhattodoaboutit.221.Gametimemaybeeithergeological,biologicalorsociological,butitisnolongerhistorical.Historyishistory.Orrather,acertainconceptionandace
rtainpracticeishistory.Historycannolongerbeastorylineaboutfreeagencyconstructingitsownconditionsofexistence.FredricJameson:"Historyiswhathurts,itiswhatrefusesdesireandsetsinexorablelimitstoind
ividualaswellascollectivepraxis".Ingamespace,historyiswhererandomvariationmeetsnecessaryselection.Thegameiswhatgrinds.Itshapesitsgamers,notinitsownimage,butaccordingtoitsalgorithms.Thepassage
fromtopographytotopologyisthepassagefromstorylinetogamespace,fromanalogcontrolofthedigitaltodigitalcontroloftheanalog,fromthediachronicsequenceofeventstothesynchronicinter-communicationsofspac
e,fromvoicetocode.Perhapshistoryreappears,butatamoresynthetic,evenphotosyntheticlevel.Perhapsthereisneveranyhistorywithouttheinstallationofagame.Eventshavetomeshincausalchains,bouncingoffgiven
limits,tobesomethingmorethanthesubjectofmerechronicles.222.Historyishistory,buttheremaybeahistorytoitspassing,toitstransformationintoanotherform.Hereagain(withamendments)GeorgeLukcs:"[Themili
taryentertainmentcomplex]destroyedboththespatio-temporalboundariesbetweendifferentlandsandterritoriesandalsothelegalpartitionsbetweentheestates.Inits[topology]thereisaformalequalityforall[game
rs];
theeconomicrelationswhichdirectlydeterminedthemetabolicexchangebetweenmenandnatureprogressivelydisappear.Manbecomes,inthetruesense,a[gamer]being.[Gamespace]becomestherealityforman.Thusther
ecognitionthat[gamespace]isrealitybecomespossibleonlyunder[themilitaryentertainmentcomplex],in[topology].Butthe[militaryentertainmentcomplex]whichcarriedoutthisrevolutiondidsowithoutconsciousn
essofitsownfunction;the[agonistic]forcesitunleashed,theveryforcesthatcarriedittosupremacyseemedtobeopposedtoitlikeasecondnature,butamoresoulless,impenetrablenaturethan[topography]everwas."SimE
arthpro
mptsasurprisingtheoreticalconclusion:historyisbackwithavengeance,andwhereleastexpected,thehistoricizationofnature.Historyonearthbecomeshistoryofearth.Historybecomestotalhistory.223.Thef
inalquestionforagamertheorymightbetomovebeyondthephenomenaofgamingasexperiencedbythegamertoconceiveofgamingfromthepointofviewofthegame.K-Punk:"Whatdowelooklikefrom[game]space?Whatdowelookliket
o[game
]space?SurelyweresembleaBeckettianassemblageofabstractedfunctionsmorethanwedoaholisticorganismconnectedtoagreatchainofbeing.Asgamesplayers,wearemerelyasetofdirectionalimpulses(up,down,le
ft,r
ight);asmobilephoneusers,wetakeinstructionsfromrecorded,fardistantvoices;asusersofSMSorIM,weexchangeaminimalizedlanguageoftencommunicatinglittlebeyondthefactofcommunicationitself(txtsforno
thing?)."
Gamespaceisanendinitself.224.ThegamermightstillbetemptedtotrytoleaveTheCave(tm),tosubstituteforit'sartificialsunanorderheldinplacebyonethatreallyburnsinavisiblesky.Butthereistheparado
x:yo
uonlyknowthevalueofthatsun,itsenergy,theconsequencesofturningitintothisorthatallocationorresources,becausethereisagame.Onlybygoingfurtherandfurtherintogamespacemightonecomeouttheothersideo
fi
t.DeleuzeandGuattari:"...onecannevergofarenoughinthedirectionof[topology]:youhaven'tseenanythingyetanirreversibleprocess.Andwhenweconsiderwhatthereisofaprofoundlyartificialnature...wecryout
,'Mor
eperversion!Moreartifice!'toapointwheretheearthbecomessoartificialthatthemovementof[topology]createsofnecessityandbyitselfanewearth."Themethodforsodoingmaynowbeapparent:pressingagainstth
elimitsofthegamefromwithin,tofindthecontrarytermsbehindtheagon.Contrarytermswhichmayopentowardaschizoidcomplexityoraparanoidcomplex.OurVirgil,ourguidethroughtheover-worldofgamespacemightinasch
izoidlightbeGillesDeleuze;inaparanoidone,GuyDebord.225.GuyDebord:"Novitaleraswereeverengenderedbyatheory;theybeganwithagame,oraconflict,orajourney."Andperhapsnowbyaconflictwithinthegame,andajo
urneythoughittogetbeyondit.201.Youarrivehomefromworkoneevening,onlytodiscoveryourbiosphereisdead.Whatawaytostarttheweek!Onlookingbackthroughtherecords,thereasonisnothardtodiscover.Aclassicgree
nhouse-effectproblem.Nexttime,winddownthefossilfuelsalittlemoresoyourglobedoesn'tcookitselftodeathwhileyou'reout.Fortunatelythebiosphereinquestionisonlyagame,orsomethinglikeagame.Youhavethispr
ogramrunningonyourhomecomputercalledSimEarth,whichletsyoumodelallkindsofbiosphereconditionsoveranumberofdifferenttimeframes:geological,biologicalandsociological.Theoneyouthinkyou'regettingalit
tleobsessedwithisamodelofplanetEarthfrom1990onwards.Sothisweekyoudecidethatyouwillsetupthismodeleverymorning,selectingtypesandquantitiesofenergyuseandexpenditure.Youwillcomehomeeveryeveningand
seeifyourworldisstillrunning.Sometimesitis,sometimesitisn't.202.There'ssomethingalittleeerieabouthavingafunctioningbiosphereinyourhome;somethingrathermoredisturbingaboutfindingthethinghasgoneb
ellyupwhileyouwereoutatwork.SimEarthletsyouchoosefromanumberofenergysources,includingbiomass,hydro-electric,solar,nuclearorfossilfuelled.Italsoletsyouprogramarangeofenergyuses,includingscience
,agriculture,medicine,andthearts.Eachofthesehasdifferenteffects.Ifyouexpendenergyonagriculture,populationincreasesrathermorerapidly.Ifyoudevotemoreresourcestoscience,technologicalchangeacceler
ates.Someoftheassumptionshereareofcoursecrude,butnotunreasonable.Naturally,ahomebiospherehastorunarelativelysimplealgorithmcomparedtotheheavydutymodel.203.Thecuriousthingaboutitishowfiddlingar
oundwiththesecrudevariablesgivesyouafeelfortheglobalimpactoffundamentalchoicesaboutwhateconomistscallresourceallocation.Forinstance,youstartituponemidweekmorningwithsettingswhichdevotealotofre
sourcestoagriculture.Thisseemsareasonableapproachtocreatingaminimalistatopia.TheodorAdorno:"Thereistendernessonlyinthecoarsestdemand:thatno-oneshouldgohungryanymore.Everyotherseekstoapplytoaco
nditionthatoughttobedeterminedbyhumanneeds,amodeofconductadaptedtoproductionasanendinitself."Andyetitdoesn'tquiteworkout.Whenyoucomehomefromworkyoufindthepopulationshotthroughtheroof.Thatonewa
spredictable.Whatyouhadn'tcountedon,though,wasthatincreasingagriculturepumpedoutmoregreenhousegasses.Thetemperaturewaseversoslowlyrising,threateningtotoasteverything,unevenlybutverycrisplybrow
n.Andallbecauseofthattroublingphrase,'humanneeds'204.Likeanypatientconfrontedwithaterminaldiagnosis,youwantedasecondopinion.SoyousetSimEarthrunningathomebeforedrivingofftowork,whereyoustealal
ittletimetofireupyourbrowserandgowebsurfing.Theurgentproblemistofindoutwhyincreasingtheamountoffoodbeinggrownhasthislethaleffect.Theprognosisisnotgood.Itseemsthatmethaneisoneofthegassesthatcau
sesglobalwarming.Abittoomuchmethaneintheairandheatgetstrappedintheatmosphere.Bydialingupmoreagriculture,youalsouppedtheamountofmethanegoingintotheatmosphere.Ricepaddies,forinstance,areoneofthe
sourcesofmethane.Itseemsthatdeepinthemuckatthebottomofricepaddiesarelittlebacteriathatproducemethaneasabyproduct.Great!Thereyouwere,onlythismorningtryingtoseetoitthatallthepeopleonyourbiospher
earegetenoughtoeat,andbythetimeyoucomehomefordinneryou'recookingthebiosphere.205.Thisisallabittoomuch,butfortunatelythenextdayistheendoftheworkingweekandyouaregoingouttodinnerafterwardswithfri
ends.YouimaginethismighttakeyourmindofSimEarth,butallthatfoodonthetablemakesyoulooseyourappetite.Thatbigsilverydishwithallthatriceinitsmellslikeover-cookedbiosphere.Thebeef,deliciousthoughitta
stes,onlymakesthingsworse.Itseemsthatoneoftheothersourcesofmethaneintheworldis,ofallthings,cowfarts.Yes,cowfarts.Itneveroccurredtoyouthattherewastheslightestglobalsignificanceinthefactthatcows
areabitgassy.Theproblemis,theyfart(andbelch)methane.Well,notthecowsexactly,butthebacteriaintheirstomachsthatbreakdownallthatgrass.Thosebacteria,liketheirteeminglittleprokaryoterelativesintheri
cepaddies,alsomakemethane.206.Theweekendcomes,sonowyoucanreallyspendsometimeonthisbiospherebusiness.Whenyouprogrammedyourlittlebiospherewithlotsoffoodproductionsothatnobodywouldgohungry,youals
oselectedahigherrateofmethaneoutput.Itjustgoestoshowhowyouhavetothinkaboutalloftheconsequencesofanythingyoudo.Thatnobodyshouldgohungryisaworthygoal,but,allthingsbeingequal,itmeansmorepeople,an