076.Sisyphus,founderofCorinth,fatherofOdysseus,founderoftheIsmithianGames,isbestknowforamostcruelandunusualpunishment,metedouttohimbytheGods.Hewastorollahugestoneupthemountainside,watchhelplesslyasitrolledbackdownagain,andthenstartalloveragain.Nobodyknowswhathedidth
atrequiredsuchapunishment.PerhapsitwasforrevealingthedesignsoftheGodstomortals.Revealingtheformsbeyondthemereparticularsofmortallifewould,intopicaltimes,beaseriouscrime.Orperhaps,moreprosaically,itwasforh
ishabitofmurderingseafarersandtravelers.Topicalspace,whereeach
law,eachGod,isborderedbyzonesofindifference,wouldsurelybetroubledbysuchatransgressionoftherulesof'xenia',ofthegiftoneowestostrangers.AnneCarson:"Thecharacteristicfeaturesofxenia,namelyitsbasisinreciprocationanditsassumptionofperpetuity,seemtohavewovenatextureofperso
nalalliancesthatheldtheancientworldtogether."Orsoitwasintopicaltimes.077.Intopographictimes,Sisyphusisahero.HerevelsinthisnewworldfromwhichtheGodsandtheirintangibleformshavefledandagreatindustrialengineusurpstheirplace.ThetaskofSisyphusbecomeseveryone'slabor:pointle
ss,repetitive,endless,shouldertothewheeloffortune.Therearenolongeranylawlessspaces.Therearenogapsbetweentopics.Allofspaceiswithinthelaw.Therearenomoreborderzoneswhereindifferenceprevails.Certainlyitgetsmuchhardertogetawaywithmurderingtravelers.Butintopographictimes,
itistimeitselfthatisnotquitesocompletelysubordinatedtorules,toends,topurposes.Thereisalimittotheworkingday,andevenwithintheworkingday,noteverysecondiscalledtoaccount.AlbertCamus:"IleaveSisyphusatthefootofthemountain!Onealwaysfindsone'sburdenagain.ButSisyphusteachest
hehigherfidelitythatnegatesthegodsandraisesrocks.Hetooconcludesthatalliswell.Thisuniversehenceforthwithoutamasterseemstohimneithersterilenorfutile.Eachatomofthatstone,eachmineralflakeofthatnightfilledmountain,initselfformsaworld."ThetopicalSisyphusplayedfastandloose
withthegapsofspace,betweenthetopics;thetopographicSisyphusplayedinthegapsoftime,andexploitedthosegapstoturneverythingtoaccountforhimselfalone.078.WhereisSisyphusnow?Usingtheanalogsticksonthegamecontroller,youmovealittlecharacterwhorollsaballcalledaKatamari.Thegameis
calledKatamariDamacy.(seefig.4)Thenametranslatesroughlyas'clumpspirit',whichmightinturntranslateas'analog'.AstheKatamariballrolls,thingssticktoit.Atfirstitissmallthingsthatstick,householditemspickedupoffthelivingroomfloor.Theballgetsbiggerasthingsstick,andsoitcanpic
kupbiggerthings.Onceyourballisbigenough,youmoveoutofthehouseandintotheworld.Tomovetheball,youtwizzlethelittleanalogjoysticks.Pushthesticksforward,andthecharacterrollstheballforward.Pullthesticksbackandthecharacterrollstheballback.Turnleft,turnright-itfeelsasthoughth
evariablepressureonthestickstranslatesintovariablemovements.Thisisanalog-arelationofcontinuousvariation.Onlyitisn'treally.Itisadigitalgame.Thegameconvertsthecontinuousmovementofyourthumbsonthesticksintoadigitalcode.Itturnsmovementsintodecisions-back/forwards,left/ri
ght,stop/start.Analgorithmcalculatestheoutcomeofeachmovement.Ifyourollyourballoverasmallobject,youpickitup.Ifyourollyourballoveronethatistoobig,youcollidewithit,throwingoffafewthingsyouhavealreadygathered.Analogspiritbecomesdigitalcode.079.Allgamesaredigital.Without
e
xception.Theyallcomedowntoastrictdecision:outorin,offsideoronside,goalornogoal.Anythingelseisjust'play'.GamestudiesscholarJesperJuul:"Theaffinitybetweencomputersandgamesisoneoftheironiesofhumanhistory."Butnotatallsurprising.Fromthestart,gameswereaproto-computer-mac
h
inesassembledoutofhumanmotion,inanimatematerialsandtheoccasionaldubiouscallbythereferee-tomakeadecision,ayesorano.Sisyphus-founderoftheIsmithiangames-iscondemnedtoauselesslaborwhichisatthesametimeuselessplay,inthatitcannotbringaboutadecision.Therockherollsnevercros
sesaline.Itrollsrightpastthenotionaltopofthemountain,andovershootsthebottomofitsownmomentum.ButinKatamariDamacy,thingsaredifferent.Ratherthantherollingoftheballbeingentirelyuseless,nowitisentirelypurposeful.Time,likespace,nolongerharborsindifference.BrendaLaurel:"…e
venthesmallestfragmentsofyouridletimehavebeencolonized...".Asyourollyourballaround,makingitbiggerandbigger,aniconinthecornerofthescreenshowsyourprogress.Theiconshowsyourballasacircleinsidealargerone,whichisthesizeitmustgrowtoifyouaretowinthislevel.Itgrows,gradually,
incrementally,butatsomepoint-adecision.Bigenough!Ananalogprogressionstopsatthedigitalthreshold.080.HereisaversionoftheKatamarimyth:YouareaPrincesenddowntoearthbyacarelessKingwhoinamomentofboredomgotdrunkanddestroyedtheheavens.TheKatamariballsyourollupareofferingstoh
im.Ifyourballisbigenoughhereplacesoneofthestarsintheskyhetrashedwithit.TheKingthensetsforthePrincethetaskofrollingupabiggerone.Perhapsthisstorylineisanallegoryfortherelationthatholdsnowbetweentheanalogandthedigital.Thetwizzlingofthesticksonthecontroller,therollingup
oftheballsonthescreen,isthetaskdemandedbygamespace,andwhichgamespacecanonlyrecognizebyrewardingthegamerwithascore.Topology,withitsendless,intricatelines-wireless,satellite,fiberoptic-turnsanythingandeverythingintoameaninglesssmearofdata.Gamespaceinstallsitselfintopo
logytoreducethatsmeartoadecision,ayes,ano,astraightline,andtoconveybacktothegamertheresultofthegamer'sactions.Theanalogisnowjustawayofexperiencingthedigital.Thedecisiononwhethersomethingcanappearornotappearisdigital.YouandyourcharacterthePrinceareconfinedtotheanalog
,rollingfromtopictotopic.TheKingcommandsthedigitalheavens.Hedecideswhatpointintheskyeachballistooccupy.081.InthemythofSisyphusthetaskistorolltheballtothetopwithoutquiteknowingwherethetopis.There'snomark,nopoint,nocode.Sisyphuspushestheballup,butiteitherfallsshortorf
allsovertheunmarkedpeak,androllsbackdownagain.InthemythofKatamarithereisnosuchambiguity.Eachthresholdisclearlymarked.Theanalogmovementofrollingtheball,continuouslyincreasingitssize,takesplacewithinthegivenlimitsofthedigital.Thereisanexactmarkatwhichitflipsfrombeingt
oosmalltojusttherightsize.Thereignoftopologysubordinatestheanalogtothedigital.Whereonceanaloganddigitalmaintainedanambiguousandcontinuous-analog-relationtoeachotherandtotheworld,thedigitalnowdistinguishesitselfsharplyfromtheanalog,subsumingtheanalogdifferenceunderth
edigitaldistinction.Thisisatransformationnotmerelyinformsofcommunicationorentertainment,noteveninformsofpoweroroftopos,butachangeinbeingitself.Thedigitalappears,finally,toinstalltopologyintheworld-onlyintheprocessithasinstalledtheworldwithintopology.InKatamariDamacy
,theworldisjuststuff,therefortheclumping.ItisKingDigital'sdecisiononitsname,sizeandplaceintheheavensthatgivesitbeing.082.ThescreeninKatamariDamacyshowsaclockinthecorner,anold-fashionedanalogclockwithasweepinghand.Thegameisanallegorithmofadoubleprocess,bywhichtheanal
o
gmovementsofthegameraretransformedintothedigital,butalsoofhowthedigitaldecisionsofthegameareexpressedtothegamerinafamiliaranalogform.Gamespacesubordinatesalloftimeandspacetothedigital.PaulVirilio:"...spacehadbeenmeasured,mapped,timehasbecomeclocktime,thediversityof
relief,oftopography,gavewaytotopology...".Intopographictimestheclocktowershoweditsfacetothetownoverwhichitpresided;nowtimeisblinkingdigits,seenanywhereandeverywhere.Justcheckyourcellphone.Thehandsoftheanalogclockturntimeintomovementinspace,reducingittolinethatrotate
sonaplane.Thedigitalclocksubstitutesonecodedsignforanother,atfixedintervals,drawingeachfromanabstractspacewhereallthesignsofthecodeexistsimultaneously.Alloftimebecomesaseriesofdiscrete,equivalentandinterchangeableunits.Ateachinterval,timecanbearrestedandmadetoyielda
number.Wheretheanalogtemporalizedspace,nowthedigitalspatializestime.083.TwistthesticksonthecontrollerandonthescreenthePrinceturnstheball.Rolltheballanditgraduallygrowsasitpicksupthings.Theiconinthecornergrowsastheballgrows.Onemovementdoublesanother.Theiconrecords,in
thismeasuringcontinuum,howseveralmovements,operatingtogether,produceatransformation.Ittracksthemovementofrollingtheball,amovementthatcontinuouslytransformsitselfoutofitself.Theanalogisallaboutrelations.Thedigitalisallaboutboundaries.Thedigitaldoesnotfollowamovinglin
e,itimposesagridoflineswhichfunctionasthresholds.ThelineatwhichtheballisdeemedbigenoughisimposedbyKingDigital.Intheanalog,differenceisaproductivityinexcessofitself;inthedigital,distinctionisanegationthatcomesfromwithout.Rolltheballasmuchasyoulike,butunlessisreachest
hesizeKingDigitaldemandswithinthetimeHeallows,youfail-andaresubjectedtoHisloftydisdain.Thisisthelimittomovementthatappearstimeandtimeagain.084.Theanalogisvariationalongaline,adifferenceofmore-andless.Thedigitalisdividedbyaline,adistinctionbetweeneither/or.Eithertheb
allclumpsenoughstuffbeastaroritdoesn't.Theanalogmayvaryalongmorethanonelineatonce,producingtheappearanceofaqualitativedifference.Thedigitalintroducesacode,whichmayproducecomplexrelationsamongitsterms,butallthetermsareseparatedbythesamelineofabsolutedistinction.Allth
eKatamariballsthatarebigenoughbecomestars,eachwithitsownnameandlocation,butallarepointsinthesameheavens.Inthisdigitalcosmos,everythingisofthesamesubstance.Nothingisreallyqualitativelydifferent.Acow,acar,yourcousin:eachhasitsshapeandcolor,butintheenditsallthesame,jus
tstuff.InKatamariDamacyitismostlyconsumerstuff,butthisgoesfarbeyondacritiqueofthecommodity.Topologycanmakeinfinitedigitaldistinctions.Itisalljustbitsandallbitsareequivalent.Thedigitalseparateseverythingintodiscretesegmentsbyimposingauniversalcodethatallowsanythingto
beconnectedtoanythingelse-topology-butpreventsanythingfromeverbeingdifferent.ThecosmosofdifferenceiswhatKingDigitalhaslost,andwhathecommandshisgamerPrincetoreplacewithacosmoscomposedofdistinctions.085.Theanalogmaymovebackwardsorforwardsalongaline,oreventrackmovement
acrossthreeormoredimensions,butonlywiththeimpositionofthedigitalcodeisitpossibletocutthetermsboundedbythedigitallineandrearrangethem.Ratherthanananalogmovementthroughspaceandtime,thedigitalopensthepossibilityofjumpingbetweenpointsinathreedimensionalspaceinwhichterms
arearrayedalongdifferentaxesandaredrawntogetherviathecode.Ratherthanacontinuouslinemovingoutfromapointintoathreedimensionalspace,oneimaginesratherathreedimensionalspaceoffixedpoints,whichcanbecalleduponbythecodetomakeupastraightlineofdistinctunits.Becauseitisdigital
,thegamecanbe'saved'.Afteryouhavesuccessfullyrolledaball,youcansaveit.Savingtakesplaceatthedigitalthreshold.Thedigitalcreatesatimethatcanbesavedbymakingalloftimeequivalent.Itisatimewithoutviolence.Whatissaveddoesnotsufferfromerosionordecompositionordecay.Italwayscom
esbackasthesame-unlessthesystemcrashes,andthedigitalcannolongerimposeitscode-inwhichcaseitmaynevercomebackatall.Thedigitalcosmosismoreperfect,yetsomuchmorefragile.086.AsthePrincerollsbiggerandbiggerballs,hegetstoplayinabiggerandbiggertopos.Thegamestartsinsideanapart
ment,thenmovesontothetownandfinallytotheworld.Thissteppingupthroughbiggerandbiggerscalesrepeatsthesteppingupthroughthescalesofthetopical,thetopographicandthetopologicalofwhichthegameisanallegorithm.Whatgivesthegameitscharmistheseeminglyridiculousideathataballofhouse
holditemscouldbeastar.Evenmoreodd:thelastandlarg
estballreplacesthesmallestheavenlybody-ameremoon.Butthisisofapiecewiththewaysoftopology.Intopologicaltimes,itisnotjustthatthedigitalnowoperatesonaplanetaryscale.Itisthatitoperatesacrossscales,connectingtheinfinitesimal
tothegig
antic.Thetiniestswitchofelectriccurrentcanlaunchacruisemissile.087.KingDigitaldestroyedtheheavens,inamomentofboredom,inafitofindifference.Thisisthedangeroftopology.Indifferenceisnolongersomethingthatlurksmerelyinthemarginsofspaceortime.Havingbeensqueezedmore
andmo
retothemarginofbothspaceandtime,ratherthandisappearing,indifferencethreatenstobecometotal,pervasive,immanent.ThePrinceiswhatthePrincehasachieved-alevel,anumber,andnothingbut.JulianStallabrass:"emotionalattachmenttothegameisestablishedthroughlabor,emergingoutof
theSisypheannatureoftheplayer'stask."Forallhislaidbackstyle,KingDigitalmakesaterribledemand,asappallingasthatmadeofSisyphusbytheGods.Hecommandsthegamertothegame,butpromisesnothingbutvictoryuntildefeat.Theonlyrewardisthattheverytimeitselfthatthegamercommitstothetaskw
illmakethetaskworthwhile.Thedigitalobjectexistsinaspacewhichchunksitintobits,eachofequivalentvalue.Thedigitalsubjectexistsinatimewhichchunksitintobits,eachofequivalentvalue.088.Digitalobject,digitalsubject-thesearebyproductsofaboredomthat,seekingrespitefromnothingne
ss,projectsitslinesacrossallspaceandtime,turningitintocommodityspaceandmilitaryspace.ThisistherecklessactofcreationwithwhichKatamariDamacybegins-theKing'sdestructionofthemythicheavenoftheoldGods,andtheprojectofreplacingitbycommandingthetransformationofahuman,analogm
ovementintoanairlessmatrixofmachinecode.ThisisthenewtaskofSisyphus.Gamespaceisalwaysandeverywheretheimpositionofthedigitalasawayoflayinganinvisiblehandontheworld-oranalltoovisiblefist.Wheretheinvisiblehandopensitsdigitstocalculatewhatitmaygain,theinvisiblefistcloses
themtocalculatewhatitmayclaim.089.Themilitaryindustrialcomplexdevelopedphotography,radar,radio-allthelinesofanalogtelesthesia-asthemeansofmeasuringandcontrollingitsforces.Thisdevelopmentreachedalimit,anditsforcesexceededitscapacitytomanagethem.Digitaltelesthesia-sta
rtingperhapswiththeSAGEcomputersystemofthe1950s-emergedasthemeansofcommand,controlandcommunication.PaulEdwards:"ForSAGEsetthekeypatternforotherhigh-technologyweaponsystems,anestedsetofincreasinglycomprehensivemilitaryenclosuresforglobaloversightandcontrol."Thetheory
ofthedigital,andofitsdistinctionfromtheanalog,emergesasabyproductofthisattemptatself-controlbythemilitaryindustrialcomplex,butittransformedthecomplexintosomethingelse.Theexpansivemovementofthemilitarymachinecallsintobeingacodethatcanmonitorandmanageit.Theanalogbeget
sthedigital,butonlyproducestheconceptoftheanalogafterthefact.AnthonyWilden:"Obviously,withoutthedigital,wecouldnotspeakoftheanalog."Withouttherecognitionoftheballasaputativestar,itcannotbenamed.Themilitaryentertainmentcomplexemergesoutofthecontroloftheanalogbythedig
ital,ofthemilitaryandindustrialproductionlinesbythedigitallinesofcommand,andbytheextensionofthedigitaltoallaspectsofeverydaylife.090.Withouttheanalog,playleavesnotrace.Withoutthedigital,playyieldsnoscore.Neitheranalognordigitalisplayitself.Butwhatcanonesayaboutplay?
Playiswhathastobepositedfortheretobeanythingforeithertheanalogorthedigitaltotrack,andyetplayisanelusiveconceptatbest.BrianSutton-Smith:"Weallplayoccasionally,andweallknowwhatplayfeelslike.Butwhenitcomestomakingtheoreticalstatementsaboutwhatplayis,wefallintosilliness
."Perhapstheveryconceptofplayappearsonlyretrospectively.Obviously,withouttheanalogandthedigital,wecouldnotspeakofplay,evenasplayexceedstheanaloglinealongwhichitistracedandthedigitallineacrosswhichitismeasured.Viatheanalog,playiscapturedinart;viathedigital,playiscapt
ur
edingames.Theanalogflattensplayoutintoasingleline,sothatitsmovementmaycontinue,inreducedform,intoanotherspace.Theplayofthefingersonthecontrollerisrecordedviathegraphicartonthescreen.Theanalogenablesamovementtocommunicatefromtopostotopos.Thedigitalcodifiesplay,tran
sl
atingitontotheverydifferentspaceofnumberandlogic-ofcode.091.Whichcamefirst,playorgame?Whichcamefirst,movesorrules?Sisyphuswasinterestedinbothnavigationandcommerce,atatimewhenbothstillhadatenuousmapofthespacesthroughwhichtheypliedtheirshipsandtheirtrade.Theruleseme
rgedoutofthemoves
.Playproducedwhat,afterthefact,couldbemarkedatransgression.Sisyphustransgressed-eitherbykillinganothertraveler,orperhapsbyseekingtoknowtherulesoftheGodsinadvance.Hispunishmentisaneternalmovewhichcannevergiverisetoagame,whichyieldsnoend,nowin,norecog
nit
ion.Nowthetermsarereversed.Playdoesnotinspirethegame;thegameanimatesplay.Behindthesubordinationoftheanalogtothedigitalisthesubordinationofplaytogame.Tracingthelineofthemove,theplay,matterslessthanthescoreityields,thethresholditcrosses.KingDigitalmakesquitetheoppo
sitedemandofthePrincetothatmadeofSisyphusbytheGods.Theeternaltaskisnolongerthemovewhichcannevercrossthefinishline,itisthemovewhichcandonothingbutyieldameasure,ascore,anumber,arank.Ratherthanplaythatcanneverend,itisthegamethatstops,andstarts,andstops,andstarts,andsto
p
s,andstarts-forever.092.Thetermsanaloganddigitalareinvariablytreatedasiftherelationbetweenthetermswasitselfadigitalone.Thisinitselfisasignofthetimes.Thesetermsaretobetreatedasdiscreteandabsolutelydistinct,acodewithtwoabsoluteterms.Anyambiguityorplaywhichmightthreat
entodeco
nstructthedistinctionistoberesolvedwithdistinctionsofaneverfinerresolution.Thisinturnleadstoevermorecomplexityinmanagingtheproliferationofbits,whichinturnrequiresevermorepowerfuldatacrunchingengines.Themilitaryentertainmentcomplexdiscoversexperimentallythati
ft
herelationbetweentheanalogandthedigitalisdigital,anabsoluteboundary,thenthedomainofthedigitalcanbeperfectedasoneofpurelyrelativeandnumericalvalue-agamespace.Thisdigitalrealmcanthenbecomethelocusforcommandandcontroloftheanalogremainder,whichittreatsasamereresidue.T
helinesofthedigit
alcanbeinscribedevermoreextensivelyandintensivelyontheworld,tothepointwhereadigitalheavenisrealized,andtheanalogseemstovanish,andplaybecomesamereeffectofthedigital.TheAnalogPrinceonlyrollstheball,steeringthiswayandthat,becauseKingDigitalcommandsit.A
ndwhydoeshe
commandit?Tomaketheuniverseover,torecreatebeingitself,asaneffectofthedigitalasacommand.093.Thedigital,onceinstalledintheworld,defeatsthelogicofthestoryline,withinwhichthedigitalservestomaketheanalogmanifest,butdoesnotcontrolit.Thenovel,whichfromJamesFenim
ore
CoopertoWilliamGibsonnarratestheriseandfallofthemilitaryindustrialcomplex,usesthecodesoflanguagetofollowaseriesofmovementsbeyondlanguage'sken.Thedigitalproduces,notjustnewkindsofmedia,butawholenewtopos,inwhichtheroleandruleofthelineisreversed.Onenolongerfollowsal
i
netofindwhereitdivides,onedivideswithalinetomakeadistinction.Storylinebecomesgamespace.ThestorylinethatinauguratestheworldofKatamariDamacyisnotacreationmythbutadestructionmyth.Thestoryline'slasttaskistoeraseitselfandinitiatethenewconditionsofdifferenceforgamespace.
Thistask
-likethatofSisyphus-mustbeendlesslyrepeated.094.Thedigital,onceinstalledintheworld,acceleratesthepotentialforchange,butforchangealwaysofthesametype.TheAnalogPrincecanrollupmanythingstomakehisKatamariballs,butanydifferenceamongtheseobjectsislost.Allthatmatter
sistheirag
gregation,glommedtogetherasmoreandmoreofthesame.Likewise,themilitaryentertainmentcomplexgridstheearthsoitmaygirdit,makingitoverintheimageofitsdigitalrulings,makingitamenabletotheimpositionofacodeofunambiguousstratifications.Distinctionsproliferatewildly,be
yondthesimpledichotomiesofthetopographic.Butthesedistinctionsarealwaysandeverywhereexchangeableequivalentswithinthelogisticsofcommodityspaceandmilitaryspace.Rollupmoreandmoreballs,populatetheheavenswithaveritablemilkyway,buteachisdistinctfromtheotheralwaysinthesamew
ay.DrewMilne:"Whatonceventuredforthasprocessualmathesisbecomesthereifiedcalculusofadministration,alogicofnumericalsamenessscreenedfromnihilisticrelativity."095.Thedigitalemergesasmilitary,butachievesacceptanceasentertainment.J.C.Herz:"…mostofthetechnologythat'snowus
edin
videogameshaditsoriginsinmilitaryresearch.Whenyoutracebackthepatents,it'svirtuallyimpossibletofindanarcadeorconsolecomponentthatevolvedintheabsenceofaDefenseDepartmentgrant."Themilitaryversionsofdigitaltelesthesiamaketheworldoverasamilitaryspace,butthedigitaldoe
snotyet
becomeacultureotherthanforasmallbandofspecialiststiedtothemilitaryindustrialcomplex.Thecomingtogetherofthedigitalandtheentertainmentcommodityinscribesthedigitalnotjustinspaceandtime,butinculturalperceptionsofspaceandtime.096.Thedigitalgameisaveryparticularcom
modity.
Itisnotjusttheusualstoreofentertainingrepresentationstransferredfromanalogandmechanicalreproductiontoadigitalform.Rather,itmakesthedigitalitselfintoentertainment.Thedigitalalwaysaddressesitssubjectasaplayer,asacalculatorandcompetitorwhohasvalueonlyinrelationt
oa
mark,ascore.Thedigitalinscribesgamespacewithinthesubjectitself.Gamespacemakestopologyseemlikeitcouldhave,ifnotmeaning,thenatleastanalgorithm.Gamespacemakestheuploadingoftheworldintotopologyseemnaturalandinevitable.Yetatthesametimeitoffersthedigitalinitspurestform,
wherethetransformationofanalogintodigitalisalwaysconsistent,repeatable,inaword-fair.Whilethegamemakesthedigitalseeminescapable,itsambiguityisinthewayitalsomakesthedigitalseemlikeitcouldbeanalmost-utopianrealm.Thegamenaturalizesgamespace,andyetcallsittoaccountasinade
quateinitsownterms.097.Thedigitalmakestheanalogitselfappearassomethingdistinct.Thedigitalrulesalinebetweenanaloganddigital,makingtheirambiguousdifferenceintoacleardistinction.Butperhaps,havingmadethedistinctionappear,theperspectivecanbereversed,andthedigitalcanbeper
c
eivedfromthepointofviewofitsanalogresidue.Whatmightemergeisrathertheplaybetweentheanalogandthedigital.Thedigitalmightbecomeagainthethresholdthatturnsamovementintoabreak,ratherthanimposingthebreakonmovement.Thegamerastheoristmightlooktowardatransformationofwhatmatte
rs
withingamespace,aturningawayfromagon,distinction,decision,thefataleither/or.Afterawhile,it'sjustnofun.JohanHuizinga:"Andundoubtedlythepredominanceoftheagonisticprincipledoesleadtodecadenceinthelongrun."098."Idon'tplaygames",saysKeitaTakahashi,designerofKatamariDam
acy.Heisasculptor."Iamhappygoingthroughthisgamephaseofmylife,whereIcangetpaidandeat."Asthedigitalsubsumestheanalogsotoothedesignersubsumestheartist.Thelongingtoreturntoartasananalogpursuit-thetraceofthehandinclayorpaint-maybeinvain.Buttheartistwithinthedesignermayst
illinscribetheanalogintheheartofthedigitalassomethingirreducible.Theartistisnowtheonewhofindsanewwayoftriflingwithinthegame.Theartistoutsiderisdead,forthereisnooutsidefromwhichtosignalbackacrosstheborder.Thelimittothegamehastobefoundfromwithin.TheAnalogPrinceistheve
ryfigureoftheartistintopologicaltimes,whoplaysgamely,twistingthiswayandthatonthecontrols,tryingtogetoutintobiggerandbiggerspaces,butalwaysunabletoescapegamespace.099.KingDigitalmayruleinKatamariDamacy,butitishissubordinate,thePrince,uponwhoselaborsthisdigitaltopolog
yisbuilt.NottheleastofthecharmsofTakahashi'sworkisthisforegroundingofthelaborthegamerperforms.ItisnolongerlaboraspunishmentfordefyingtheGods.Itisnolongerabsurdlabor,performedconsciouslyandjoyouslyinspiteoftheabsenceoftheGods.Topologyinstalls,inplaceoftheabsentGods,K
ingDigital,andhisdemandthat,whilelaborispunishinglyhardandabsurdlypointless,itneverthelesshasitsmeasure.Sisyphus,theAnalogPrince,laborstorollupeverythinginthisworldmadeoverunderthemarkofthedigitalandofferitupforappraisal.Whatthedigitalhasalwayswanted-tobetheformofal
lforms-hascometopass.Ourpunishmentforattemptingtostealthoseformsforourownpurposesistolaborendlesslytorepeatthem.KatamariDamacymerelyextendstheatopiaofthedigitaltotheheavensthemselves.100.WhenthePrincesucceedsincompletingalevel,KatamariDamacyrewardsthegamerwithacutsc
e
ne,ashortanimationabouttheHoshinofamily.Theyarecutebutratherchunky,asifthedigitalhadalreadysnappedthemtoitsgrid.TheHoshinoswatchtheirastronautfatherTomioashebeginshisvoyagetotheMoon.Tomio'smissionhastobecancelledbecausethereisnoMoontowhichtotravel.Thelastmissionoft
h
egame,MaketheMoon,requirestherollingupofmostoftheobjectsonEarth,includingtheHoshinofamilyandtheirfather'srocket.OncethePrincehasrestoredthemoontotheKing'ssatisfaction,afinalcutsceneshowstheHoshinofamily-motherandfather,boyandgirl,onthenewMoon.Havingcompletedthereco
nstructionofthecosmosasoneofdigitaldistinctionsratherthananalogdifferences,adigitalpeoplefindthemselvesalreadythere,alreadyinhabitingthemoontowhichTomiowastotravel.Thereisnoneedtotravel-thatgreatpastimeoftopographictimes.Nowthere'snoplacetogowhichisnotsubjecttothesa
mecode.ThereignofKingDigital,theKingofAllCosmosiscomplete.076.Sisyphus,founderofCorinth,fatherofOdysseus,founderoftheIsmithianGames,isbestknowforamostcruelandunusualpunishment,metedouttohimbytheGods.Hewastorollahugestoneupthemountainside,watchhelplesslyasitrolledbac
kdownagain,andthenstartalloveragain.Nobodyknowswhathedidthatrequiredsuchapunishment.PerhapsitwasforrevealingthedesignsoftheGodstomortals.Revealingtheformsbeyondthemereparticularsofmortallifewould,intopicaltimes,beaseriouscrime.Orperhaps,moreprosaically,itwasforhisha
bitofmurderingseafarersandtravelers.Topicalspace,whereeachlaw,eachGod,isborderedbyzonesofindifference,wouldsurelybetroubledbysuchatransgressionoftherulesof'xenia',ofthegiftoneowestostrangers.AnneCarson:"Thecharacteristicfeaturesofxenia,namelyitsbasisinreciprocationa
nditsassumptionofperpetuity,seemtohavewovenatextureofpersonalalliancesthatheldtheancientworldtogether."Orsoitwasintopicaltimes.077.Intopographictimes,Sisyphusisahero.HerevelsinthisnewworldfromwhichtheGodsandtheirintangibleformshavefledandagreatindustrialengineusurps
theirplace.ThetaskofSisyphusbecomeseveryone'slabor:pointless,repetitive,endless,shouldertothewheeloffortune.Therearenolongeranylawlessspaces.Therearenogapsbetweentopics.Allofspaceiswithinthelaw.Therearenomoreborderzoneswhereindifferenceprevails.Certainlyitgetsmuchha
rdertogetawaywithmurderingtravelers.Butintopographictimes,itistimeitselfthatisnotquitesocompletelysubordinatedtorules,toends,topurposes.Thereisalimittotheworkingday,andevenwithintheworkingday,noteverysecondiscalledtoaccount.AlbertCamus:"IleaveSisyphusatthefootofthem
ountain!Onealwaysfindsone'sburdenagain.ButSisyphusteachesthehigherfidelitythatnegatesthegodsandraisesrocks.Hetooconcludesthatalliswell.Thisuniversehenceforthwithoutamasterseemstohimneithersterilenorfutile.Eachatomofthatstone,eachmineralflakeofthatnightfilledmountain
,initselfformsaworld."ThetopicalSisyphusplayedfastandloosewiththegapsofspace,betweenthetopics;thetopographicSisyphusplayedinthegapsoftime,andexploitedthosegapstoturneverythingtoaccountforhimselfalone.078.WhereisSisyphusnow?Usingtheanalogsticksonthegamecontroller,you
m
ovealittlecharacterwhorollsaballcalledaKatamari.ThegameiscalledKatamariDamacy.(seefig.4)Thenametranslatesroughlyas'clumpspirit',whichmightinturntranslateas'analog'.AstheKatamariballrolls,thingssticktoit.Atfirstitissmallthingsthatstick,householditemspickedupofftheli
vingroomfloor.Theballgetsbiggerasthingsstick,andsoitcanpickupbiggerthings.Onceyourballisbigenough,youmoveoutofthehouseandintotheworld.Tomovetheball,youtwizzlethelittleanalogjoysticks.Pushthesticksforward,andthecharacterrollstheballforward.Pullthesticksbackandthechar
acterrollstheballback.Turnleft,turnright-itfeelsasthoughthevariablepressureonthestickstranslatesintovariablemovements.Thisisanalog-arelationofcontinuousvariation.Onlyitisn'treally.Itisadigitalgame.Thegameconvertsthecontinuousmovementofyourthumbsonthesticksintoadigit
alcode.Itturnsmovementsintodecisions-back/forwards,left/right,stop/start.Analgorithmcalculatestheoutcomeofeachmovement.Ifyourollyourballoverasmallobject,youpickitup.Ifyourollyourballoveronethatistoobig,youcollidewithit,throwingoffafewthingsyouhavealreadygathered.Ana
logspiritbecomesdigitalcode.079.Allgamesaredigital.Withoutexception.Theyallcomedowntoastrictdecision:outorin,offsideoronside,goalornogoal.Anythingelseisjust'play'.GamestudiesscholarJesperJuul:"Theaffinitybetweencomputersandgamesisoneoftheironiesofhumanhistory."Butno
tatallsurprising.Fromthestart,gameswereaproto-computer-machinesassembledoutofhumanmotion,inanimatematerialsandtheoccasionaldubiouscallbythereferee-tomakeadecision,ayesorano.Sisyphus-founderoftheIsmithiangames-iscondemnedtoauselesslaborwhichisatthesametimeuselessplay
,inthatitcannotbringaboutadecision.Therockherollsnevercrossesaline.Itrollsrightpastthenotionaltopofthemountain,andovershootsthebottomofitsownmomentum.ButinKatamariDamacy,thingsaredifferent.Ratherthantherollingoftheballbeingentirelyuseless,nowitisentirelypurposeful.T
ime,likespace,nolongerharborsindifference.BrendaLaurel:"…eventhesmallestfragmentsofyouridletimehavebeencolonized...".Asyourollyourballaround,makingitbiggerandbigger,aniconinthecornerofthescreenshowsyourprogress.Theiconshowsyourballasacircleinsidealargerone,whichisth
esizeitmustgrowtoifyouaretowinthislevel.Itgrows,gradually,incrementally,butatsomepoint-adecision.Bigenough!Ananalogprogressionstopsatthedigitalthreshold.080.HereisaversionoftheKatamarimyth:YouareaPrincesenddowntoearthbyacarelessKingwhoinamomentofboredomgotdrunkandde
stroyedtheheavens.TheKatamariballsyourollupareofferingstohim.Ifyourballisbigenoughhereplacesoneofthestarsintheskyhetrashedwithit.TheKingthensetsforthePrincethetaskofrollingupabiggerone.Perhapsthisstorylineisanallegoryfortherelationthatholdsnowbetweentheanalogandthed
igital.Thetwizzlingofthesticksonthecontroller,therollingupoftheballsonthescreen,isthetaskdemandedbygamespace,andwhichgamespacecanonlyrecognizebyrewardingthegamerwithascore.Topology,withitsendless,intricatelines-wireless,satellite,fiberoptic-turnsanythingandeverythin
gintoameaninglesssmearofdata.Gamespaceinstallsitselfintopologytoreducethatsmeartoadecision,ayes,ano,astraightline,andtoconveybacktothegamertheresultofthegamer'sactions.Theanalogisnowjustawayofexperiencingthedigital.Thedecisiononwhethersomethingcanappearornotappearis
digital.YouandyourcharacterthePrinceareconfinedtotheanalog,rollingfromtopictotopic.TheKingcommandsthedigitalheavens.Hedecideswhatpointintheskyeachballistooccupy.081.InthemythofSisyphusthetaskistorolltheballtothetopwithoutquiteknowingwherethetopis.There'snomark,nopoi
nt,nocode.Sisyphuspushestheballup,butiteitherfallsshortorfallsovertheunmarkedpeak,androllsbackdownagain.InthemythofKatamarithereisnosuchambiguity.Eachthresholdisclearlymarked.Theanalogmovementofrollingtheball,continuouslyincreasingitssize,takesplacewithinthegivenlim
itsofthedigital.Thereisanexactmarkatwhichitflipsfrombeingtoosmalltojusttherightsize.Thereignoftopologysubordinatestheanalogtothedigital.Whereonceanaloganddigitalmaintainedanambiguousandcontinuous-analog-relationtoeachotherandtotheworld,thedigitalnowdistinguishesitse
lfsharplyfromtheanalog,subsumingtheanalogdifferenceunderthedigitaldistinction.Thisisatransformationnotmerelyinformsofcommunicationorentertainment,noteveninformsofpoweroroftopos,butachangeinbeingitself.Thedigitalappears,finally,toinstalltopologyintheworld-onlyinthepr
ocessithasinstalledtheworldwithintopology.InKatamariDamacy,theworldisjuststuff,therefortheclumping.ItisKingDigital'sdecisiononitsname,sizeandplaceintheheavensthatgivesitbeing.082.ThescreeninKatamariDamacyshowsaclockinthecorner,anold-fashionedanalogclockwithasweeping
hand.Thegameisanallegorithmofadoubleprocess,bywhichtheanalogmovementsofthegameraretransformedintothedigital,butalsoofhowthedigitaldecisionsofthegameareexpressedtothegamerinafamiliaranalogform.Gamespacesubordinatesalloftimeandspacetothedigital.PaulVirilio:"...spaceha
dbeenmeasured,mapped,timehasbecomeclocktime,thediversityofrelief,oftopography,gavewaytotopology...".Intopographictimestheclocktowershoweditsfacetothetownoverwhichitpresided;nowtimeisblinkingdigits,seenanywhereandeverywhere.Justcheckyourcellphone.Thehandsoftheanalogc
lockturntimeintomovementinspace,reducingittolinethatrotatesonaplane.Thedigitalclocksubstitutesonecodedsignforanother,atfixedintervals,drawingeachfromanabstractspacewhereallthesignsofthecodeexistsimultaneously.Alloftimebecomesaseriesofdiscrete,equivalentandinterchang
eableunits.Ateachinterval,timecanbearrestedandmadetoyieldanumber.Wheretheanalogtemporalizedspace,nowthedigitalspatializestime.083.TwistthesticksonthecontrollerandonthescreenthePrinceturnstheball.Rolltheballanditgraduallygrowsasitpicksupthings.Theiconinthecornergrows
astheballgrows.Onemovementdoublesanother.Theiconrecords,inthismeasuringcontinuum,howseveralmovements,operatingtogether,produceatransformation.Ittracksthemovementofrollingtheball,amovementthatcontinuouslytransformsitselfoutofitself.Theanalogisallaboutrelations.Thedig
italisallaboutboundaries.Thedigitaldoesnotfollowamovingline,itimposesagridoflineswhichfunctionasthresholds.ThelineatwhichtheballisdeemedbigenoughisimposedbyKingDigital.Intheanalog,differenceisaproductivityinexcessofitself;inthedigital,distinctionisanegationthatcomes
fromwithout.Rolltheballasmuchasyoulike,butunlessisreachesthesizeKingDigitaldemandswithinthetimeHeallows,youfail-andaresubjectedtoHisloftydisdain.Thisisthelimittomovementthatappearstimeandtimeagain.084.Theanalogisvariationalongaline,adifferenceofmore-andless.Thedigit
alisdividedbyaline,adistinctionbetweeneither/or.Eithertheballclumpsenoughstuffbeastaroritdoesn't.Theanalogmayvaryalongmorethanonelineatonce,producingtheappearanceofaqualitativedifference.Thedigitalintroducesacode,whichmayproducecomplexrelationsamongitsterms,butallth
etermsareseparatedbythesamelineofabsolutedistinction.AlltheKatamariballsthatarebigenoughbecomestars,eachwithitsownnameandlocation,butallarepointsinthesameheavens.Inthisdigitalcosmos,everythingisofthesamesubstance.Nothingisreallyqualitativelydifferent.Acow,acar,yourc
ousin:eachhasitsshapeandcolor,butintheenditsallthesame,juststuff.InKatamariDamacyitismostlyconsumerstuff,butthisgoesfarbeyondacritiqueofthecommodity.Topologycanmakeinfinitedigitaldistinctions.Itisalljustbitsandallbitsareequivalent.Thedigitalseparateseverythingintodi
scretesegmentsbyimposingauniversalcodethatallowsanythingtobeconnectedtoanythingelse-topology-butpreventsanythingfromeverbeingdifferent.ThecosmosofdifferenceiswhatKingDigitalhaslost,andwhathecommandshisgamerPrincetoreplacewithacosmoscomposedofdistinctions.085.Theanal
ogmaymovebackwardsorforwardsalongaline,oreventrackmovementacrossthreeormoredimensions,butonlywiththeimpositionofthedigitalcodeisitpossibletocutthetermsboundedbythedigitallineandrearrangethem.Ratherthanananalogmovementthroughspaceandtime,thedigitalopensthepossibility
ofjumpingbetweenpointsinathreedimensionalspaceinwhichtermsarearrayedalongdifferentaxesandaredrawntogetherviathecode.Ratherthanacontinuouslinemovingoutfromapointintoathreedimensionalspace,oneimaginesratherathreedimensionalspaceoffixedpoints,whichcanbecalleduponbythec
odetomakeupastraightlineofdistinctunits.Becauseitisdigital,thegamecanbe'saved'.Afteryouhavesuccessfullyrolledaball,youcansaveit.Savingtakesplaceatthedigitalthreshold.Thedigitalcreatesatimethatcanbesavedbymakingalloftimeequivalent.Itisatimewithoutviolence.Whatissaved
doesnotsufferfromerosionordecompositionordecay.Italwayscomesbackasthesame-unlessthesystemcrashes,andthedigitalcannolongerimposeitscode-inwhichcaseitmaynevercomebackatall.Thedigitalcosmosismoreperfect,yetsomuchmorefragile.086.AsthePrincerollsbiggerandbiggerballs,hege
tstoplayinabiggerandbiggertopos.Thegamestartsinsideanapartment,thenmovesontothetownandfinallytotheworld.Thissteppingupthroughbiggerandbiggerscalesrepeatsthesteppingupthroughthescalesofthetopical,thetopographicandthetopologicalofwhichthegameisanallegorithm.Whatgivest
hegameitscharmistheseeminglyridiculousideathataballofhouseholditemscouldbeastar.Evenmoreodd:thelastandlargestballreplacesthesmallestheavenlybody-ameremoon.Butthisisofapiecewiththewaysoftopology.Intopologicaltimes,itisnotjustthatthedigitalnowoperatesonaplanetaryscale
.Itisthatitoperatesacrossscales,connectingtheinfinitesimaltothegigantic.Thetiniestswitchofelectriccurrentcanlaunchacruisemissile.087.KingDigitaldestroyedtheheavens,inamomentofboredom,inafitofindifference.Thisisthedangeroftopology.Indifferenceisnolongersomethingthatl
urksmerelyinthemarginsofspaceortime.Havingbeensqueezedmoreandmoretothemarginofbothspaceandtime,ratherthandisappearing,indifferencethreatenstobecometotal,pervasive,immanent.ThePrinceiswhatthePrincehasachieved-alevel,anumber,andnothingbut.JulianStallabrass:"…emotional
attachmenttothegameisestablishedthroughlabor,emergingoutoftheSisypheannatureoftheplayer'stask."Forallhislaidbackstyle,KingDigitalmakesaterribledemand,asappallingasthatmadeofSisyphusbytheGods.Hecommandsthegamertothegame,butpromisesnothingbutvictoryuntildefeat.Theonly
rewardisthattheverytimeitselfthatthegamercommitstothetaskwillmakethetaskworthwhile.Thedigitalobjectexistsinaspacewhichchunksitintobits,eachofequivalentvalue.Thedigitalsubjectexistsinatimewhichchunksitintobits,eachofequivalentvalue.088.Digitalobject,digitalsubject-th
esearebyproductsofaboredomthat,seekingrespitefromnothingness,projectsitslinesacrossallspaceandtime,turningitintocommodityspaceandmilitaryspace.ThisistherecklessactofcreationwithwhichKatamariDamacybegins-theKing'sdestructionofthemythicheavenoftheoldGods,andtheproject
ofreplacingitbycommandingthetransformationofahuman,analogmovementintoanairlessmatrixofmachinecode.ThisisthenewtaskofSisyphus.Gamespaceisalwaysandeverywheretheimpositionofthedigitalasawayoflayinganinvisiblehandontheworld-oranalltoovisiblefist.Wheretheinvisiblehandope
nsitsdigitstocalculatewhatitmaygain,theinvisiblefistclosesthemtocalculatewhatitmayclaim.089.Themilitaryindustrialcomplexdevelopedphotography,radar,radio-allthelinesofanalogtelesthesia-asthemeansofmeasuringandcontrollingitsforces.Thisdevelopmentreachedalimit,anditsfo
rcesexceededitscapacitytomanagethem.Digitaltelesthesia-startingperhapswiththeSAGEcomputersystemofthe1950s-emergedasthemeansofcommand,controlandcommunication.PaulEdwards:"ForSAGEsetthekeypatternforotherhigh-technologyweaponsystems,anestedsetofincreasinglycomprehensiv
emilitaryenclosuresforglobaloversightandcontrol."Thetheoryofthedigital,andofitsdistinctionfromtheanalog,emergesasabyproductofthisattemptatself-controlbythemilitaryindustrialcomplex,butittransformedthecomplexintosomethingelse.Theexpansivemovementofthemilitarymachinec
allsintobeingacodethatcanmonitorandmanageit.Theanalogbegetsthedigital,butonlyproducestheconceptoftheanalogafterthefact.AnthonyWilden:"Obviously,withoutthedigital,wecouldnotspeakoftheanalog."Withouttherecognitionoftheballasaputativestar,itcannotbenamed.Themilitaryent
ertainmentcomplexemergesoutofthecontroloftheanalogbythedigital,ofthemilitaryandindustrialproductionlinesbythedigitallinesofcommand,andbytheextensionofthedigitaltoallaspectsofeverydaylife.090.Withouttheanalog,playleavesnotrace.Withoutthedigital,playyieldsnoscore.Neit
heranalognordigitalisplayitself.Butwhatcanonesayaboutplay?Playiswhathastobepositedfortheretobeanythingforeithertheanalogorthedigitaltotrack,andyetplayisanelusiveconceptatbest.BrianSutton-Smith:"Weallplayoccasionally,andweallknowwhatplayfeelslike.Butwhenitcomestomaki
ngtheoreticalstatementsaboutwhatplayis,wefallintosilliness."Perhapstheveryconceptofplayappearsonlyretrospectively.Obviously,withouttheanalogandthedigital,wecouldnotspeakofplay,evenasplayexceedstheanaloglinealongwhichitistracedandthedigitallineacrosswhichitismeasured
.Viatheanalog,playiscapturedinart;viathedigital,playiscapturedingames.Theanalogflattensplayoutintoasingleline,sothatitsmovementmaycontinue,inreducedform,intoanotherspace.Theplayofthefingersonthecontrollerisrecordedviathegraphicartonthescreen.Theanalogenablesamovemen
ttocommunicatefromtopostotopos.Thedigitalcodifiesplay,translatingitontotheverydifferentspaceofnumberandlogic-ofcode.091.Whichcamefirst,playorgame?Whichcamefirst,movesorrules?Sisyphuswasinterestedinbothnavigationandcommerce,atatimewhenbothstillhadatenuousmapofthespac
esthroughwhichtheypliedtheirshipsandtheirtrade.Therulesemergedoutofthemoves.Playproducedwhat,afterthefact,couldbemarkedatransgression.Sisyphustransgressed-eitherbykillinganothertraveler,orperhapsbyseekingtoknowtherulesoftheGodsinadvance.Hispunishmentisaneternalmovew
hichcannevergiverisetoagame,whichyieldsnoend,nowin,norecognition.Nowthetermsarereversed.Playdoesnotinspirethegame;thegameanimatesplay.Behindthesubordinationoftheanalogtothedigitalisthesubordinationofplaytogame.Tracingthelineofthemove,theplay,matterslessthanthescorei
tyields,thethresholditcrosses.KingDigitalmakesquitetheoppositedemandofthePrincetothatmadeofSisyphusbytheGods.Theeternaltaskisnolongerthemovewhichcannevercrossthefinishline,itisthemovewhichcandonothingbutyieldameasure,ascore,anumber,arank.Ratherthanplaythatcanneveren
d,itisthegamethatstops,andstarts,andstops,andstarts,andstops,andstarts-forever.092.Thetermsanaloganddigitalareinvariablytreatedasiftherelationbetweenthetermswasitselfadigitalone.Thisinitselfisasignofthetimes.Thesetermsaretobetreatedasdiscreteandabsolutelydistinct,ac
odewithtwoabsoluteterms.Anyambiguityorplaywhichmightthreatentodeconstructthedistinctionistoberesolvedwithdistinctionsofaneverfinerresolution.Thisinturnleadstoevermorecomplexityinmanagingtheproliferationofbits,whichinturnrequiresevermorepowerfuldatacrunchingengines.T
hemilitaryentertainmentcomplexdiscoversexperimentallythatiftherelationbetweentheanalogandthedigitalisdigital,anabsoluteboundary,thenthedomainofthedigitalcanbeperfectedasoneofpurelyrelativeandnumericalvalue-agamespace.Thisdigitalrealmcanthenbecomethelocusforcommandan
dcontroloftheanalogremainder,whichittreatsasamereresidue.Thelinesofthedigitalcanbeinscribedevermoreextensivelyandintensivelyontheworld,tothepointwhereadigitalheavenisrealized,andtheanalogseemstovanish,andplaybecomesamereeffectofthedigital.TheAnalogPrinceonlyrollsthe
ball,steeringthiswayandthat,becauseKingDigitalcommandsit.Andwhydoeshecommandit?Tomaketheuniverseover,torecreatebeingitself,asaneffectofthedigitalasacommand.093.Thedigital,onceinstalledintheworld,defeatsthelogicofthestoryline,withinwhichthedigitalservestomaketheanalo
gmanifest,butdoesnotcontrolit.Thenovel,whichfromJamesFenimoreCoopertoWilliamGibsonnarratestheriseandfallofthemilitaryindustrialcomplex,usesthecodesoflanguagetofollowaseriesofmovementsbeyondlanguage'sken.Thedigitalproduces,notjustnewkindsofmedia,butawholenewtopos,inw
hichtheroleandruleofthelineisreversed.Onenolongerfollowsalinetofindwhereitdivides,onedivideswithalinetomakeadistinction.Storylinebecomesgamespace.ThestorylinethatinauguratestheworldofKatamariDamacyisnotacreationmythbutadestructionmyth.Thestoryline'slasttaskistoerase
itselfandinitiatethenewconditionsofdifferenceforgamespace.Thistask-likethatofSisyphus-mustbeendlesslyrepeated.094.Thedigital,onceinstalledintheworld,acceleratesthepotentialforchange,butforchangealwaysofthesametype.TheAnalogPrincecanrollupmanythingstomakehisKatamarib
alls,butanydifferenceamongtheseobjectsislost.Allthatmattersistheiraggregation,glommedtogetherasmoreandmoreofthesame.Likewise,themilitaryentertainmentcomplexgridstheearthsoitmaygirdit,makingitoverintheimageofitsdigitalrulings,makingitamenabletotheimpositionofacodeofu
nambiguousstratifications.Distinctionsproliferatewildly,beyondthesimpledichotomiesofthetopographic.Butthesedistinctionsarealwaysandeverywhereexchangeableequivalentswithinthelogisticsofcommodityspaceandmilitaryspace.Rollupmoreandmoreballs,populatetheheavenswithaverit
ablemilkyway,buteachisdistin
ctfromtheotheralwaysinthesameway.DrewMilne:"Whatonceventuredforthasprocessualmathesisbecomesthereifiedcalculusofadministration,alogicofnumericalsamenessscreenedfromnihilisticrelativity."095.Thedigitalemergesasmilitary,butachievesacceptanc
easentertainment.J.C.Herz:"…mostofthetechnologythat'snowusedinvideogameshaditsoriginsinmilitaryresearch.Whenyoutracebackthepatents,it'svirtuallyimpossibletofindanarcadeorconsolecomponentthatevolvedintheabsenceofaDefenseDepartmentgrant."Themilitaryversionsofdigitalte
lesthesiamaketheworldoverasamilitaryspace,butthedigitaldoesnotyetbecomeacultureotherthanforasmallbandofspecialiststiedtothemilitaryindustrialcomplex.Thecomingtogetherofthedigitalandtheentertainmentcommodityinscribesthedigitalnotjustinspaceandtime,butinculturalpercep
tionsofspaceandtime.096.Thedigitalgameisaveryparticularcommodity.Itisnotjusttheusualstoreofentertainingrepresentationstransferredfromanalogandmechanicalreproductiontoadigitalform.Rather,itmakesthedigitalitselfintoentertainment.Thedigitalalwaysaddressesitssubjectasap
layer,asacalculatorandcompetitorwhohasvalueonlyinrelationtoamark,ascore.Thedigitalinscribesgamespacewithinthesubjectitself.Gamespacemakestopologyseemlikeitcouldhave,ifnotmeaning,thenatleastanalgorithm.Gamespacemakestheuploadingoftheworldintotopologyseemnaturalandine
vitable.Yetatthesametimeitoffersthedigitalinitspurestform,wherethetransformationofanalogintodigitalisalwaysconsistent,repeatable,inaword-fair.Whilethegamemakesthedigitalseeminescapable,itsambiguityisinthewayitalsomakesthedigitalseemlikeitcouldbeanalmost-utopianrealm
.Thegamenaturalizesgamespace,andyetcallsittoaccountasinadequateinitsownterms.097.Thedigitalmakestheanalogitselfappearassomethingdistinct.Thedigitalrulesalinebetweenanaloganddigital,makingtheirambiguousdifferenceintoacleardistinction.Butperhaps,havingmadethedistincti
onappear,theperspectivecanbereversed,andthedigitalcanbeperceivedfromthepointofviewofitsanalogresidue.Whatmightemergeisrathertheplaybetweentheanalogandthedigital.Thedigitalmightbecomeagainthethresholdthatturnsamovementintoabreak,ratherthanimposingthebreakonmovement.T
h
egamerastheoristmightlooktowardatransformationofwhatmatterswithingamespace,aturningawayfromagon,distinction,decision,thefataleither/or.Afterawhile,it'sjustnofun.JohanHuizinga:"Andundoubtedlythepredominanceoftheagonisticprincipledoesleadtodecadenceinthelongrun."098.
"
Idon'tplaygames",saysKeitaTakahashi,designerofKatamariDamacy.Heisasculptor."Iamhappygoingthroughthisgamephaseofmylife,whereIcangetpaidandeat."Asthedigitalsubsumestheanalogsotoothedesignersubsumestheartist.Thelongingtoreturntoartasananalogpursuit-thetraceofthehandin
clayorpaint-maybeinvain.Buttheartistwithinthedesignermaystillinscribetheanalogintheheartofthedigitalassomethingirreducible.Theartistisnowtheonewhofindsanewwayoftriflingwithinthegame.Theartistoutsiderisdead,forthereisnooutsidefromwhichtosignalbackacrosstheborder.Thel
imittothegamehastobefoundfromwithin.TheAnalogPrinceistheveryfigureoftheartistintopologicaltimes,whoplaysgamely,twistingthiswayandthatonthecontrols,tryingtogetoutintobiggerandbiggerspaces,butalwaysunabletoescapegamespace.099.KingDigitalmayruleinKatamariDamacy,butitis