076.Sisyphus,founderofCorinth,fatherofOdysseus,founderoftheIsmithianGames,isbestknowforamostcruelandunusualpunishment,metedouttohimbytheGods.Hewastorollahugestoneupthemountainside,watchhelplesslyasitrolledbackdownagain,and
thenstartalloveragain.Nobodyknowswhathedidthatrequiredsuchapunishment.PerhapsitwasforrevealingthedesignsoftheGodstomortals.Revealingtheformsbeyondthemereparticularsofmortallifewould,intopicaltimes,beaseriouscrime.Orperhaps
,moreprosaically,itwasforhishabitofmurderingseafarersandtravelers.Topicalspace,whereeachlaw,eachGod,isborderedbyzonesofindifference,wouldsurelybetroubledbysuchatransgressionoftherulesof'xenia',ofthegiftoneowestostrangers.A
nneCarson:"Thecharacteristicfeaturesofxenia,namelyitsbasisinreciprocationanditsassumptionofperpetuity,seemtohavewove
natextureofpersonalalliancesthatheldtheancientworldtogether."Orsoitwasintopicaltimes.077.Intopographictime
s,Sisy
phusisahero.HerevelsinthisnewworldfromwhichtheGodsandtheirintangibleformshavefledandagreatindustrialengineusurpstheirplace.ThetaskofSisyphusbecomeseveryone'slabor:pointless,repetitive,endless,shouldertothewheeloffort
une.Th
erearenolongeranylawlessspaces.Therearenogapsbetweentopics.Allofspaceiswithinthelaw.Therearenomoreborderzoneswhereindifferenceprevails.Certainlyitgetsmuchhardertogetawaywithmurderingtravelers.Butintopographictimes,it
istime
itselfthatisnotquitesocompletelysubordinatedtorules,toends,topurposes.Thereisalimittotheworkingday,andevenwithintheworkingday,noteverysecondiscalledtoaccount.AlbertCamus:"IleaveSisyphusatthefootofthemountain!Onealway
sfinds
one'sburdenagain.ButSisyphusteachesthehigherfidelitythatnegatesthegodsandraisesrocks.Hetooconcludesthatalliswell.Thisuniversehenceforthwithoutamasterseemstohimneithersterilenorfutile.Eachatomofthatstone,eachmineralfl
akeoft
hatnightfilledmountain,initselfformsaworld."ThetopicalSisyphusplayedfastandloosewiththegapsofspace,betweenthetopics;thetopographicSisyphusplayedinthegapsoftime,andexploitedthosegapstoturneverythingtoaccountforhimself
alone.
078.WhereisSisyphusnow?Usingtheanalogsticksonthegamecontroller,youmovealittlecharacterwhorollsaballcalledaKatamari.ThegameiscalledKatamariDamacy.(seefig.4)Thenametranslatesroughlyas'clumpspirit',whichmightinturntrans
lateas
'analog'.AstheKatamariballrolls,thingssticktoit.Atfirstitissmallthingsthatstick,householditemspickedupoffthelivingroomfloor.Theballgetsbiggerasthingsstick,andsoitcanpickupbiggerthings.Onceyourballisbigenough,youmoveo
utofth
ehouseandintotheworld.Tomovetheball,youtwizzlethelittleanalogjoysticks.Pushthesticksforward,andthecharacterrollstheballforward.Pullthesticksbackandthecharacterrollstheballback.Turnleft,turnright-itfeelsasthoughthevar
iablep
ressureonthestickstranslatesintovariablemovements.Thisisanalog-arelationofcontinuousvariation.Onlyitisn'treally.Itisadigitalgame.Thegameconvertsthecontinuousmovementofyourthumbsonthesticksintoadigitalcode.Itturnsmove
mentsi
ntodecisions-back/forwards,left/right,stop/start.Analgorithmcalculatestheoutcomeofeachmovement.Ifyourollyourballoverasmallobject,youpickitup.Ifyourollyourballoveronethatistoobig,youcollidewithit,throwingoffafewthings
youhav
ealreadygathered.Analogspiritbecomesdigitalcode.079.Allgamesaredigital.Withoutexception.Theyallcomedowntoastrictdecision:outorin,offsideoronside,goalornogoal.Anythingelseisjust'play'.GamestudiesscholarJesperJuul:"The
affini
tybetweencomputersandgamesisoneoftheironiesofhumanhistory."Butnotatallsurprising.Fromthestart,gameswereaproto-computer-machinesassembledoutofhumanmotion,inanimatematerialsandtheoccasionaldubiouscallbythereferee-tomak
eadeci
sion,ayesorano.Sisyphus-founderoftheIsmithiangames-iscondemnedtoauselesslaborwhichisatthesametimeuselessplay,inthatitcannotbringaboutadecision.Therockherollsnevercrossesaline.Itrollsrightpastthenotionaltopofthemounta
in,and
overshootsthebottomofitsownmomentum.ButinKatamariDamacy,thingsaredifferent.Ratherthantherollingoftheballbeingentirelyuseless,nowitisentirelypurposeful.Time,likespace,nolongerharborsindifference.BrendaLaurel:"…eventhe
small
estfragmentsofyouridletimehavebeencolonized...".Asyourollyourballaround,makingitbiggerandbigger,aniconinthecornerofthescreenshowsyourprogress.Theiconshowsyourballasacircleinsidealargerone,whichisthesizeitmustgrowtoify
ouaret
owinthislevel.Itgrows,gradually,incrementally,butatsomepoint-adecision.Bigenough!Ananalogprogressionstopsatthedigitalthreshold.080.HereisaversionoftheKatamarimyth:YouareaPrincesenddowntoearthbyacarelessKingwhoinamome
ntofboredomgotdrunkanddestroyedtheheavens.TheKatamariballsyourollupareofferingstohim.Ifyourballisbigenoughhereplacesoneofthestarsintheskyhetrashedwithit.TheKingthensetsforthePrincethetaskofrollingupabiggerone.Perhapsthisst
orylineisanallegoryfortherelationthatholdsnowbetweentheanalogandthedigital.Thetwizzlingofthesticksonthecontroller,therollingupoftheballsonthescreen,isthetaskdemandedbygamespace,andwhichgamespacecanonlyrecognizebyrewardingt
hega
merwithascore.Topology,withitsendless,intricatelines-wireless,satellite,fiberoptic-turnsanythingandeverythingintoameaninglesssmearofdata.Gamespaceinstallsitselfintopologytoreducethatsmeartoadecision,ayes,ano,astraightl
ine,andtoconveybacktothegamertheresultofthegamer'sactions.Theanalogisnowjustawayofexperiencingthedigital.Thedecisiononwhethersomethingcanappearornotappearisdigital.YouandyourcharacterthePrinceareconfinedtotheanalog,rolling
fromto
pictotopic.TheKingcommandsthedigitalheavens.Hedecideswhatpointintheskyeachballistooccupy.081.InthemythofSisyphusthetaskistorolltheballtothetopwithoutquiteknowingwherethetopis.There'snomark,nopoint,nocode.Sisyphuspush
estheb
allup,butiteitherfallsshortorfallsovertheunmarkedpeak,androllsbackdownagain.InthemythofKatamarithereisnosuchambiguity.Eachthresholdisclearlymarked.Theanalogmovementofrollingtheball,continuouslyincreasingitssize,takes
placew
ithinthegivenlimitsofthedigital.Thereisanexactmarkatwhichitflipsfrombeingtoosmalltojusttherightsize.Thereignoftopologysubordinatestheanalogtothedigital.Whereonceanaloganddigitalmaintainedanambiguousandcontinuous-anal
og-rel
ationtoeachotherandtotheworld,thedigitalnowdistinguishesitselfsharplyfromtheanalog,subsumingtheanalogdifferenceunderthedigitaldistinction.Thisisatransformationnotmerelyinformsofcommunicationorentertainment,noteveninf
ormsof
poweroroftopos,butachangeinbeingitself.Thedigitalappears,finally,toinstalltopologyintheworld-onlyintheprocessithasinstalledtheworldwithintopology.InKatamariDamacy,theworldisjuststuff,therefortheclumping.ItisKingDigit
al'sde
cisiononitsname,sizeandplaceintheheavensthatgivesitbeing.082.ThescreeninKatamariDamacyshowsaclockinthecorner,anold-fashionedanalogclockwithasweepinghand.Thegameisanallegorithmofadoubleprocess,bywhichtheanalogmovement
softhe
gameraretransformedintothedigital,butalsoofhowthedigitaldecisionsofthegameareexpressedtothegamerinafamiliaranalogform.Gamespacesubordinatesalloftimeandspacetothedigital.PaulVirilio:"...spacehadbeenmeasured,mapped,tim
ehasbe
comeclocktime,thediversityofrelief,oftopography,gavewaytotopology...".Intopographictimestheclocktowershoweditsfacetothetownoverwhichitpresided;nowtimeisblinkingdigits,seenanywhereandeverywhere.Justcheckyourcellphone.
Thehan
dsoftheanalogclockturntimeintomovementinspace,reducingittolinethatrotatesonaplane.Thedigitalclocksubstitutesonecodedsignforanother,atfixedintervals,drawingeachfromanabstractspacewhereallthesignsofthecodeexistsimultan
eously
.Alloftimebecomesaseriesofdiscrete,equivalentandinterchangeableunits.Ateachinterval,timecanbearrestedandmadetoyieldanumber.Wheretheanalogtemporalizedspace,nowthedigitalspatializestime.083.Twistthesticksonthecontrolle
randon
thescreenthePrinceturnstheball.Rolltheballanditgraduallygrowsasitpicksupthings.Theiconinthecornergrowsastheballgrows.Onemovementdoublesanother.Theiconrecords,inthismeasuringcontinuum,howseveralmovements,operatingtoge
ther,p
roduceatransformation.Ittracksthemovementofrollingtheball,amovementthatcontinuouslytransformsitselfoutofitself.Theanalogisallaboutrelations.Thedigitalisallaboutboundaries.Thedigitaldoesnotfollowamovingline,itimposesa
gridoflineswhichfunctionasthresholds.ThelineatwhichtheballisdeemedbigenoughisimposedbyKingDigit
al.Intheanalog,differenceisaproductivityinexcessofitself;inthedigital,distinctionisanegationthatcomesfromwithout.Rolltheballasm
uchasyoulike,butunlessisreachesthesizeKingDigitaldemandswithinthetimeHeallows,youfail-andaresub
jectedtoHisloftydisdain.Thisisthelimittomovementthatappearstimeandtimeagain.084.Theanalogisvariationalongaline,adifferenceofmor
e-andless.Thedigitalisdividedbyaline,adistinctionbetweeneither/or.Eithertheballclumpsenoughstuf
fbeastaroritdoesn't.Theanalogmayvaryalongmorethanonelineatonce,producingtheappearanceofaqualitativedifference.Thedigitalintrodu
cesacode,whichmayproducecomplexrelationsamongitsterms,butallthetermsareseparatedbythesamelineof
absolutedistinction.AlltheKatamariballsthatarebigenoughbecomestars,eachwithitsownnameandlocation,butallarepointsinthesameheaven
s.Inthisdigitalcosmos,everythingisofthesamesubstance.Nothingisreallyqualitativelydifferent.Acow,acar,yourcousin:eachhasitsshapeandcolor,butintheenditsallthesame,juststuff.InKatamariDamacyitismostlyconsumerstuff,butthisgoes
farbeyondacritiqueofthecommodity.Topologycanmakeinfinitedigitaldistinctions.Itisalljustbitsandallbitsareequivalent.Thedigitalseparateseverythingintodiscretesegmentsbyimposingauniversalcodethatallowsanythingtobeconnectedtoa
nythingelse-topology-butpreventsanythingfromeverbeingdifferent.ThecosmosofdifferenceiswhatKingDigitalhaslost,andwhathecommandshisgamerPrincetoreplacewithacosmoscomposedofdistinctions.085.Theanalogmaymovebackwardsorforwards
alongaline,oreventrackmovementacrossthreeormoredimensions,butonlywiththeimpositionofthedigitalcodeisitpossibletocutthetermsboundedbythedigitallineandrearrangethem.Ratherthanananalogmovementthroughspaceandtime,thedigitalope
nsthepossibilityofjumpingbetweenpointsinathreedimensionalspaceinwhichtermsarearrayedalongdifferentaxesandaredrawntogetherviathecode.Ratherthanacontinuouslinemovingoutfromapointintoathreedimensionalspace,oneimaginesratherat
hreedimensionalspaceoffixedpoints,whichcanbecalleduponbythecodetomakeupastraightlineofdistinctunits.Becauseitisdigital,thegamecanbe'saved'.Afteryouhavesuccessfullyrolledaball,youcansaveit.Savingtakesplaceatthedigitalthresh
old.Thedigitalcreatesatimethatcanbesavedbymakingalloftimeequivalent.Itisatimewithoutviolence.Whatissaveddoesnotsufferfromerosionordecompositionordecay.Italwayscomesbackasthesame-unlessthesystemcrashes,andthedigitalcannolon
gerimposeitscode-inwhichcaseitmaynevercomebackatall.Thedigitalcosmosismoreperfect,yetsomuchmorefragile.086.AsthePrincerollsbiggerandbiggerballs,hegetstoplayinabiggerandbiggertopos.Thegamestartsinsideanapartment,thenmoveson
tothetownandfinallytotheworld.Thissteppingupthroughbiggerandbiggerscalesrepeatsthesteppingupthroughthescalesofthetopical,thetopographicandthetopologicalofwhichthegameisanallegorithm.Whatgivesthegameitscharmistheseeminglyri
diculousideathataballofhouseholditemscouldbeastar.Evenmoreodd:thelastandlargestballreplacesthesmallestheavenlybody-ameremoon.Butthisisofapiecewiththewaysoftopology.Intopologicaltimes,itisnotjustthatthedigitalnowoperatesona
planetaryscale.Itisthatitoperatesacrossscales,connectingtheinfinitesimaltothegigantic.Thetiniestswitchofelectriccurrentcanlaunchacruisemissile.087.KingDigitaldestroyedtheheavens,inamomentofboredom,inafitofindifference.This
isthedangeroftopology.Indifferenceisnolongersomethingthatlurksmerelyinthemarginsofspaceortime.Havingbeensqueezedmoreandmoretothemarginofbothspaceandtime,ratherthandisappearing,indifferencethreatenstobecometotal,pervasive,i
mmanent.ThePrinceiswhatthePrincehasachieved-alevel,anumber,andnothingbut.JulianStallabrass:"…emotionalattachmenttothegameisestablishedthroughlabor,emergingoutoftheSisypheannatureoftheplayer'stask."Forallhislaidbackstyle,Ki
ngDigitalmakesaterribledemand,asappallingasthatmadeofSisyphusbytheGods.Hecommandsthegamertothegame,butpromisesnothingbutvictoryuntildefeat.Theonlyrewardisthattheverytimeitselfthatthegamercommitstothetaskwillmakethetaskwort
hwhile.Thedigitalobjectexistsinaspacewhichchunksitintobits,eachofequivalentvalue.Thedigitalsubjectexistsinatimewhichchunksitintobits,eachofequivalentvalue.088.Digitalobject,digitalsubject-thesearebyproductsofaboredomthat,s
eekingrespitefromnothingness,projectsitslinesacrossallspaceandtime,turningitintocommodityspaceandmilitaryspace.ThisistherecklessactofcreationwithwhichKatamariDamacybegins-theKing'sdestructionofthemythicheavenoftheoldGods,a
ndtheprojectofreplacingitbycommandingthetransformationofahuman,analogmovementintoanairlessmatrixofmachinecode.ThisisthenewtaskofSisyphus.Gamespaceisalwaysandeverywheretheimpositionofthedigitalasawayoflayinganinvisiblehando
ntheworld-oranalltoovisiblefist.Wheretheinvisiblehandopensitsdigitstocalculatewhatitmaygain,theinvisiblefistclosesthemtocalculatewhatitmayclaim.089.Themilitaryindustrialcomplexdevelopedphotography,radar,radio-allthelinesof
analogtelesthesia-asthemeansofmeasuringandcontrollingitsforces.Thisdevelopmentreachedalimit,anditsforcesexceededitscapacitytomanagethem.Digita
ltelesthesia-startingperhapswiththeSAGEcomputersystemofthe1950s-emergedasthemean
sofcommand,controlandcommunication.PaulEdwards:"ForSAGEsetthekeypatternforotherhigh-technologyweaponsystems,anestedsetofincreasinglyc
omprehensivemilitaryenclosuresforglobaloversightandcontrol."Thetheoryofthedigital,andofit
sd
istinctionfromtheanalog,emergesasabyproductofthisattemptatself-controlbythemilitaryindustrialcomplex,butittransformedthecomplexintosomethingelse.Theexpansivemovementofthemilitarymachinecallsintobeingacodethatcanmonitoran
dmana
geit.Theanalogbegetsthedigital,butonlyproducestheconceptoftheanalogafterthefact.AnthonyWilden:"Obviously,withoutthedigital,wecouldnotspeakoftheanalog."Withouttherecognitionoftheballasaputativestar,itcannotbenamed.Them
ilitaryentertainmentcomplexemergesoutofthecontroloftheanalogbythedigital,ofthemilitaryandindustrialproductionlinesbythedigitallinesofcommand,andbytheextensionofthedigitaltoallaspectsofeverydaylife.090.Withouttheanalog,play
leavesnotrace.Withoutthedigital,playyieldsnoscore.Neitheranalognordigitalisplayitself.Butwhatcanonesayaboutplay?Playiswhathastobepositedfortheretobeanythingforeithertheanalogorthedigitaltotrack,andyetplayisanelusiveconcept
atbest.BrianSutton-Smith:"Weallplayoccasionally,andweallknowwhatplayfeelslike.Butwhenitcomestomakingtheoreticalstatementsaboutwhatplayis,wefallintosilliness."Perhapstheveryconceptofplayappearsonlyretrospectively.Obviously,
withouttheanalogandthedigital,wecouldnotspeakofplay,evenasplayexceedstheanaloglinealongwhichitistracedandthedigitallineacrosswhichitismeasured.Viatheanalog,playiscapturedinart;viathedigital,playiscapturedingames.Theanalogf
lattensplayoutintoasingleline,sothatitsmovementmaycontinue,inreducedform,intoanotherspace.Theplayofthefingersonthecontrollerisrecordedviathegraphicartonthescreen.Theanalogenablesamovementtocommunicatefromtopostotopos.Thedi
gitalcodifiesplay,translatingitontotheverydifferentspaceofnumberandlogic-ofcode.091.Whichcamefirst,playorgame?Whichcamefirst,movesorrules?Sisyphuswasinterestedinbothnavigationandcommerce,atatimewhenbothstillhadatenuousmapo
fthespacesthroughwhichtheypliedtheirshipsandtheirtrade.Therulesemergedoutofthemoves.Playproducedwhat,afterthefact,couldbemarkedatransgression.Sisyphustransgressed-eitherbykillinganothertraveler,orperhapsbyseekingtoknowther
ulesoftheGodsinadvance.Hispunishmentisaneternalmovewhichcannevergiverisetoagame,whichyieldsnoend,nowin,norecognition.Nowthetermsarereversed.Playdoesnotinspirethegame;thegameanimatesplay.Behindthesubordinationoftheanalogtot
hedigitalisthesubordinationofplaytogame.Tracingthelineofthemove,theplay,matterslessthanthescoreityields,thethresholditcrosses.KingDigitalmakesquitetheoppositedemandofthePrincetothatmadeofSisyphusbytheGods.Theeternaltaskisn
olongerthemovewhichcannevercrossthefinishline,itisthemovewhichcandonothingbutyieldameasure,ascore,anumber,arank.Ratherthanplaythatcanneverend,itisthegamethatstops,andstarts,andstops,andstarts,andstops,andstarts-forever.092
.Thetermsanaloganddigitalareinvariablytreatedasiftherelationbetweenthetermswasitselfadigitalone.Thisinitselfisasignofthetimes.Thesetermsaretobetreatedasdiscreteandabsolutelydistinct,acodewithtwoabsoluteterms.Anyambiguityor
playwhichmightthreatentodeconstructthedistinctionistoberesolvedwithdistinctionsofaneverfinerresolution.Thisinturnleadstoevermorecomplexityinmanagingtheproliferationofbits,whichinturnrequiresevermorepowerfuldatacrunchingeng
ines.Themilitaryentertainmentcomplexdiscoversexperimentallythatiftherelationbetweentheanalogandthedigitalisdigital,anabsoluteboundary,thenthedomainofthedigitalcanbeperfectedasoneofpurelyrelativeandnumericalvalue-agamespace
.Thisdigitalrealmcanthenbecomethelocusforcommandandcontroloftheanalogremainder,whichittreatsasamereresidue.Thelinesofthedigitalcanbeinscribedevermoreextensivelyandintensivelyontheworld,tothepointwhereadigitalheavenisrealiz
ed,andtheanalogseemstovanish,andplaybecomesamereeffectofthedigital.TheAnalogPrinceonlyrollstheball,steeringthiswayandthat,becauseKingDigitalcommandsit.Andwhydoeshecommandit?Tomaketheuniverseover,torecreatebeingitself,asane
ffectofthedigitalasacommand.093.Thedigital,onceinstalledintheworld,defeatsthelogicofthestoryline,withinwhichthedigitalservestomaketheanalogmanifest,butdoesnotcontrolit.Thenovel,whichfromJamesFenimoreCoopertoWilliamGibsonna
rratestheriseandfallofthemilitaryindustrialcomplex,usesthecodesoflanguagetofollowaseriesofmovementsbeyondlanguage'sken.Thedigitalproduces,notjustnewkindsofmedia,butawholenewtopos,inwhichtheroleandruleofthelineisreversed.On
enolongerfollowsalinetofindwhereitdivides,onedivideswithalinetomakeadistinction.Storylinebecomesgamespace.ThestorylinethatinauguratestheworldofKatamariDamacyisnotacreationmythbutadestructionmyth.Thestoryline'slasttaskistoe
raseitselfandinitiatethenewconditionsofdifferenceforgamespace.Thistask-likethatofSisyphus-mustbeendlesslyrepeated.094.Thedigital,onceinstalledintheworld,acceleratesthepotentialforchange,butforchangealwaysofthesametype.TheA
nalogPrincecanrollupmanythingstomakehisKatamariballs,butanydifferenceamongtheseobjectsislost.Allthatmattersistheiraggregation,glommedtogetherasmoreandmoreofthesame.Likewise,themilitaryentertainmentcomplexgridstheearthsoitm
aygirdit,makingitoverintheimageofitsdigitalrulings,makingitamenabletotheimpositionofacodeofunambiguousstratifications.Distinctionsproliferatewildly,beyondthesimpledichotomiesofthetopographic.Butthesedistinctionsarealwaysan
deverywhereexchangeableequivalentswithinthelogisticsofcommodityspaceandmilitaryspace.Rollupmoreandmoreballs,populatetheheavenswithaveritablemilkyway,buteachisdistinctfromtheotheralwaysinthesameway.DrewMilne:"Whatonceventur
edforthasprocessualmathesisbecomesthereifiedcalculusofadministration,alogicofnumericalsamenessscreenedfromnihilisticrelativity."095.Thedigitalemergesasmilitary,butachievesacceptanceasentertainment.J.C.Herz:"mostofthetechn
ologythat'snowusedinvideogameshaditsoriginsinmilitaryresearch.Whenyoutracebackthepatents,it'svirtuallyimpossibletofindanarcadeorconsolecomponentthatevolvedintheabsenceofaDefenseDepartmentgrant."Themilitaryversionsofdigital
telesthesiamaketheworldoverasamilitaryspace,butthedigitaldoesnotyetbecomeacultureotherthanforasmallbandofspecialiststiedtothemilitaryindustrialcomplex.Thecomingtogetherofthedigitalandtheentertainmentcommodityinscribesthedi
gitalnotjustinspaceandtime,butinculturalperceptionsofspaceandtime.096.Thedigitalgameisaveryparticularcommodity.Itisnotjusttheusualstoreofentertainingrepresentationstransferredfromanalogandmechanicalreproductiontoadigitalfo
rm.Rather,itmakesthedigitalitselfintoentertainment.Thedigitalalwaysaddressesitssubjectasaplayer,asacalculatorandcompetitorwhohasvalueonlyinrelationtoamark,ascore.Thedigitalinscribesgamespacewithinthesubjectitself.Gamespace
makestopologyseemlikeitcouldhave,ifnotmeaning,thenatleastanalgorithm.Gamespacemakestheuploadingoftheworldintotopologyseemnaturalandinevitable.Yetatthesametimeitoffersthedigitalinitspurestform,wherethetransformationofanalog
intodigitalisalwaysconsistent,repeatable,inaword-fair.Whilethegamemakesthedigitalseeminescapable,itsambiguityisinthewayitalsomakesthedigitalseemlikeitcouldbeanalmost-utopianrealm.Thegamenaturalizesgamespace,andyetcallsitto
accountasinadequateinitsownterms.097.Thedigitalmakestheanalogitselfappearassomethingdistinct.Thedigitalrulesalinebetweenanaloganddigital,makingtheirambiguousdifferenceintoacleardistinction.Butperhaps,havingmadethedistincti
onappear,theperspectivecanbereversed,andthedigitalcanbeperceivedfromthepointofviewofitsanalogresidue.Whatmightemergeisrathertheplaybetweentheanalogandthedigital.Thedigitalmightbecomeagainthethresholdthatturnsamovementintoa
break,ratherthanimposingthebreakonmovement.Thegamerastheoristmightlooktowardatransformationofwhatmatterswithingamespace,aturningawayfromagon,distinction,decision,thefataleither/or.Afterawhile,it'sjustnofun.JohanHuizinga:"A
ndundoubtedlythepredominanceoftheagonisticprincipledoesleadtodecadenceinthelongrun."098."Idon'tplaygames",saysKeitaTakahashi,designerofKatamariDamacy.Heisasculptor."Iamhappygoingthroughthisgamephaseofmylife,whereIcangetpai
dandeat."Asthedigitalsubsumestheanalogsotoothedesignersubsumestheartist.Thelongingtoreturntoartasananalogpursuit-thetraceofthehandinclayorpaint-maybeinvain.Buttheartistwithinthedesignermaystillinscribetheanalogintheheartof
thedigitalassomethingirreducible.Theartistisnowtheonewhofindsanewwayoftriflingwithinthegame.Theartistoutsiderisdead,forthereisnooutsidefromwhichtosignalbackacrosstheborder.Thelimittothegamehastobefoundfromwithin.TheAnalogP
rinceistheveryfigureoftheartistintopologicaltimes,whoplaysgamely,twistingthiswayandthatonthecontrols,tryingtogetoutintobiggerandbiggerspaces,butalwaysunabletoescapegamespace.099.KingDigitalmayruleinKatamariDamacy,butitishi
ssubordinate,thePrince,uponwhoselaborsthisdigitaltopologyisbuilt.NottheleastofthecharmsofTakahashi'sworkisthisforegroundingofthelaborthegamerperforms.ItisnolongerlaboraspunishmentfordefyingtheGods.Itisnolongerabsurdlabor,p
erformedconsciouslyandjoyouslyinspiteoftheabsenceoftheGods.Topologyinstalls,inplaceoftheabsentGods,KingDigital,andhisdemandthat,whilelaborispunishinglyhardandabsurdlypointless,itneverthelesshasitsmeasure.Sisyphus,theAnalog
Prince,laborstorollupeverythinginthisworldmadeoverunderthemarkofthedigitalandofferitupforappraisal.Whatthedigitalhasalwayswanted-tobetheformofallforms-hascometopass.Ourpunishmentforattemptingtostealthoseformsforourownpurpo
sesistolaborendlesslytorepeatthem.KatamariDamacymerelyextendstheatopiaofthedigitaltotheheavensthemselves.100.WhenthePrincesucceedsincompletingalevel,KatamariDamacyrewardsthegamerwithacutscene,ashortanimationabouttheHoshino
family.Theyarecutebutratherchunky,asifthedigitalhadalreadysnappedthemtoitsgrid.TheHoshinoswatchtheirastronautfatherTomioashebeginshisvoyagetotheMoon.Tomio'smissionhastobecancelledbecausethereisnoMoontowhichtotravel.Thelast
missionofthegame,MaketheMoon,requirestherollingupofmostoftheobjectsonEarth,includingtheHoshinofamilyandtheirfather'srocket.OncethePrincehasrestoredthemoontotheKing'ssatisfaction,afinalcutsceneshowstheHoshinofamily-motheran
dfather,boyandgirl,onthenewMoon.Havingcompletedthereconstructionofthecosmosasoneofdigitaldistinctionsratherthananalogdifferences,adigitalpeoplefindthemselvesalreadythere,alreadyinhabitingthemoontowhichTomiowastotravel.Ther
eisnoneedtotravel-thatgreatpastimeoftopographictimes.Nowthere'snoplacetogowhichisnotsubjecttothesamecode.ThereignofKingDigital,theKingofAllCosmosiscomplete.076.Sisyphus,founderofCorinth,fatherofOdysseus,founderoftheIsmithi
anGames,isbestknowforamostcruelandunusualpunishment,metedouttohimbytheGods.Hewastorollahugestoneupthemountainside,watchhelplesslyasitrolledbackdownagain,andthenstartalloveragain.Nobodyknowswhathedidthatrequiredsuchapunishm
ent.PerhapsitwasforrevealingthedesignsoftheGodstomortals.Revealingtheformsbeyondthemereparticularsofmortallifewould,intopicaltimes,beaseriouscrime.Orperhaps,moreprosaically,itwasforhishabitofmurderingseafarersandtravelers.
Topicalspace,whereeachlaw,eachGod,isborderedbyzonesofindifference,wouldsurelybetroubledbysuchatransgressionoftherulesof'xenia',ofthegiftoneowestostrangers.AnneCarson:"Thecharacteristicfeaturesofxenia,namelyitsbasisinrecipr
ocationanditsassumptionofperpetuity,seemtohavewovenatextureofpersonalalliancesthatheldtheancientworldtogether."Orsoitwasintopicaltimes.077.Intopographictimes,Sisyphusisahero.HerevelsinthisnewworldfromwhichtheGodsandtheirin
tangibleformshavefledandagreatindustrialengineusurpstheirplace.ThetaskofSisyphusbecomeseveryone'slabor:pointless,repetitive,endless,shouldertothewheeloffortune.Therearenolongeranylawlessspaces.Therearenogapsbetweentopics.A
llofspaceiswithinthelaw.Therearenomoreborderzoneswhereindifferenceprevails.Certainlyitgetsmuchhardertogetawaywithmurderingtravelers.Butintopographictimes,itistimeitselfthatisnotquitesocompletelysubordinatedtorules,toends,t
opurposes.Thereisalimittotheworkingday,andevenwithintheworkingday,noteverysecondiscalledtoaccount.AlbertCamus:"IleaveSisyphusatthefootofthemountain!Onealwaysfindsone'sburdenagain.ButSisyphusteachesthehigherfidelitythatnega
testhegodsandraisesrocks.Hetooconcludesthatalliswell.Thisuniversehenceforthwithoutamasterseemstohimneithersterilenorfutile.Eachatomofthatstone,eachmineralflakeofthatnightfilledmountain,initselfformsaworld."ThetopicalSisyph
usplayedfastandloosewiththegapsofspace,betweenthetopics;thetopographicSisyphusplayedinthegapsoftime,andexploitedthosegapstoturneverythingtoaccountforhimselfalone.078.WhereisSisyphusnow?Usingtheanalogsticksonthegamecontroll
er,youmovealittlecharacterwhorollsaballcalledaKatamari.ThegameiscalledKatamariDamacy.(seefig.4)Thenametranslatesroughlyas'clumpspirit',whichmightinturntranslateas'analog'.AstheKatamariballrolls,thingssticktoit.Atfirstitiss
mallthingsthatstick,householditemspickedupoffthelivingroomfloor.Theballgetsbiggerasthingsstick,andsoitcanpickupbiggerthings.Onceyourballisbigenough,youmoveoutofthehouseandintotheworld.Tomovetheball,youtwizzlethelittleanalo
gjoysticks.Pushthesticksforward,andthecharacterrollstheballforward.Pullthesticksbackandthecharacterrollstheballback.Turnleft,turnright-itfeelsasthoughthevariablepressureonthestickstranslatesintovariablemovements.Thisisanal
og-arelationofcontinuousvariation.Onlyitisn'treally.Itisadigitalgame.Thegameconvertsthecontinuousmovementofyourthumbsonthesticksintoadigitalcode.Itturnsmovementsintodecisions-back/forwards,left/right,stop/start.Analgorithm
calculatestheoutcomeofeachmovement.Ifyourollyourballoverasmallobject,youpickitup.Ifyourollyourballoveronethatistoobig,youcollidewithit,throwingoffafewthingsyouhavealreadygathered.Analogspiritbecomesdigitalcode.079.Allgames
aredigital.Withoutexception.Theyallcomedowntoastrictdecision:outorin,offsideoronside,goalornogoal.Anythingelseisjust'play'.GamestudiesscholarJesperJuul:"Theaffinitybetweencomputersandgamesisoneoftheironiesofhumanhistory."B
utnotatallsurprising.Fromthestart,gameswereaproto-computer-machinesassembledoutofhumanmotion,inanimatematerialsandtheoccasionaldubiouscallbythereferee-tomakeadecision,ayesorano.Sisyphus-founderoftheIsmithiangames-iscondemn
edtoauselesslaborwhichisatthesametimeuselessplay,inthatitcannotbringaboutadecision.Therockherollsnevercrossesaline.Itrollsrightpastthenotionaltopofthemountain,andovershootsthebottomofitsownmomentum.ButinKatamariDamacy,thin
gsaredifferent.Ratherthantherollingoftheballbeingentirelyuseless,nowitisentirelypurposeful.Time,likespace,nolongerharborsindifference.BrendaLaurel:"…eventhesmallestfragmentsofyouridletimehavebeencolonized...".Asyourollyour
b
allaround,makingitbiggerandbigger,aniconinthecornerofthescreenshowsyourprogress.Theiconshowsyourballasacircleinsidealargerone,whichisthesizeitmustgrowtoifyouaretowinthislevel.Itgrows,gradually,incrementally,butatsomepoint
-
adecision.Bigenough!Ananalogprogressionstopsatthedigitalthreshold.080.HereisaversionoftheKatamarimyth:YouareaPrincesenddowntoearthbyacarelessKingwhoinamomentofboredomgotdrunkanddestroyedtheheavens.TheKatamariballsyourollu
p
areofferingstohim.Ifyourballisbigenoughhereplacesoneofthestarsintheskyhetrashedwithit.TheKingthensetsforthePrincethetaskofrollingupabiggerone.Perhapsthisstorylineisanallegoryfortherelationthatholdsnowbetweentheanalogandth
e
digital.Thetwizzlingofthesticksonthecontroller,therollingupoftheballsonthescreen,isthetaskdemandedbygamespace,andwhichgamespacecanonlyrecognizebyrewardingthegamerwithascore.Topology,withitsendless,intricatelines-wireless,
satellite,fiberoptic-turnsanythingandeverythingintoameaninglesssmearofdata.Gamespaceinstallsitselfintopologytoreducethatsmeartoadecision,ayes,ano,astraightline,andtoconveybacktothegamertheresultofthegamer'sactions.Theanalo
gisnowjustawayofexperiencingthedigital.Thedecisiononwhethersomethingcanappearornotappearisdigital.YouandyourcharacterthePrinceareconfinedtotheanalog,rollingfromtopictotopic.TheKingcommandsthedigitalheavens.Hedecideswhatpoi
ntintheskyeachballistooccupy.081.InthemythofSisyphusthetaskistorolltheballtothetopwithoutquiteknowingwherethetopis.There'snomark,nopoint,nocode.Sisyphuspushestheballup,butiteitherfallsshortorfallsovertheunmarkedpeak,androl
lsbackdownagain.InthemythofKatamarithereisnosuchambiguity.Eachthresholdisclearlymarked.Theanalogmovementofrollingtheball,continuouslyincreasingitssize,takesplacewithinthegivenlimitsofthedigital.Thereisanexactmarkatwhichitf
lipsfrombeingtoosmalltojusttherightsize.Thereignoftopologysubordinatestheanalogtothedigital.Whereonceanaloganddigitalmaintainedanambiguousandcontinuous-analog-relationtoeachotherandtotheworld,thedigitalnowdistinguishesitse